Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Coccinea grandishot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 961
GOURD FAMILY
Cucurbitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ivy gourd, kovai fruit, little gourd, scarlet gourd, tindora
Cambodia: slok bahs, voer bahs
Indonesia: timun kecil, timun jepang
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, herbaceous vine (9–28 m long) with hairless stems, extensive tuberous root system and axillary tendrils.
Leaves: Green, hairless above and hairy below, simple, eggshaped with broad and rounded base tapering towards the end or heart-shaped (5–9 cm long and 4–9 cm wide), sometimes with 3–7 shallow to deep lobes, margins finely to minutely toothed, held alternately on stem, leaf stalks 1–3 cm long.
Flowers: White, large, star-shaped with five petals.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green
turning bright red as they mature, smooth, egg-or oval-shaped (25–60 mm long and 14–35 mm wide); stalks are 10–40 mm long.
 
ORIGIN
Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal,Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Food and ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, gardens, cropland, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Very aggressive and can smother and kill other vegetation, including large trees. In Hawaii, it smothers trees and understorey vegetation (Muniappan et al., 2009). It has the potential to invade dry forest areas on Maui and out-compete rare native plants (Starr et al., 2003a). According to Medeiros et al. (1993) C. grandis ‘would not only trigger the decline of much of the remaining biota but also transform the visual landscape to even the most casual of observers’. C. grandis is ‘an aggressive alien vine that tends to out-compete all other plants’ (Starr and Martz, 2000). It can also cover fences, power lines and other infrastructure causing economic damage. In the last two decades, C. grandis has emerged as an invasive weed in the islands of Guam and Saipan, where it is a problem plant both in managed gardens and natural areas (PIER, 2005). It is also a host for a number of crop pests in the family Cucurbitaceae including Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Aulacophora spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bemisia spp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Antigonon leptopushot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 1142
KNOTWEED FAMILY
Polygonaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bride’s tears, chain of love, coral bells, coral creeper, love vine
Indonesia: bunga air mata pengantin
Malaysia: bunga berteh, bunga bonet
Philippines: cadena de amor, kantutay
Thailand: phuang-chomphuu
Viet Nam: hoa ti-gôn
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen climber or vine with tendrils, angular stems [6–10 (–15 m long]; hairless or with young shoots covered in brownish or reddish hairs; older stems brown and woody near base; underground tubers.
Leaves: Light green on upper surface, pale green below, membranous, conspicuous network of veins, heart-shaped or triangular (2.5–15 cm long and 2–10 cm wide), margins entire, wavy or bluntly toothed with pointed tips, leaf stalks 1–5 cm long, slightly winged.
Flowers: Bright pink, sometimes white, in clusters (4–20 cm long) at the tips of branches, tips of clusters ending in a short tendril. Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown, cone-shaped or three-angled (8–12 mm long and 4–7 mm wide), covered in the papery remains of the flower ‘petals.’
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and coastal sand dunes.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native trees, out-competes understorey plants and alters fire regimes (Langeland et al., 2008; USDA-NRCS, 2011). On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), it is ‘rampant on sea and inland cliffs and in previously mined areas where it may be hampering the annual migration of crabs and interfering with natural regeneration’ (Swarbrick and Hart, 2000). It has been estimated to cover 20% of the island of Saint Eustatius (Caribbean) (Ernst and Ketner, 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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