Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Cenchrus echinatushot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 855
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffel grass, bur grass, field sandbur, hedgehog grass, Mossman river grass
Indonesia: rumput daratan
Philippines: agingay, madiyong-madiyong, sagisi, rukut-dukut
Thailand: yaa son krachap, ya-bung
Viet Nam: co echin
 
DESCRIPTION
Short-lived, tufted grass with often branched stems (culms) (25–60 cm tall), hairless nodes, roots occasionally produced at the lowest joints.
Leaves: Green, sheath (tubular structure that clasps stem) partially encloses stem, usually hairless but sometimes with a few hairs, reddish or purplish on young plants and lower stems; blades are linear (5–25 cm long and 3–12 mm wide), narrowing to a point, some hairs along margins.
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (3–10 cm long and 1–1.3 cm wide).
Fruits: Burr-like structures in inflorescence (4–10 mm long), each with many sharp spines (2–5 mm long), reddish or purplish-green when young turning straw-coloured or dark brown; ‘burs’ contain seeds which are brown and have a flattened tip.
 
ORIGIN
Mexico and southern USA
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, fallow land, crops, managed pasture, gardens, grassland and sandy soils along the coast.
 
IMPACTS
Can readily establish large monocultures to the detriment of native plant species and the organisms that depend on them. On Laysan Island, Hawaii, it displaced the native bunchgrass, Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich) Steud., and in so doing, reduced important breeding sites for two endemic, endangered land birds, the Laysan finch [Telespiza cantans (Wilson)], and the Laysan duck [Anas laysanensis Rothschild], as well as several species of indigenous seabirds and terrestrial arthropods (Flint and Rehkemper, 2002). The burs are apparently also dangerous for hatchlings of seabirds on the Northwestern Islands (Motooka et al., 2003). Burs in animal feed can also reduce their acceptability and palatability. Buffel grass is also a serious agricultural weed of orchards, vineyards, coffee, vegetables, bananas and coconuts. Crops competing for nutrients with C. echinatus typically have smaller leaf areas and lower growth rates and yields (Hammerton, 1981; Everaarts, 1993; Ramos and Pitelli, 1994). C. echinatus is also an alternative host for maize streak monogeminivirus and sugarcane streak monogeminivirus (Brunt et al., 1996).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Cardiospermum halicacabumhot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 735
SOAPBERRY FAMILY
Sapindaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: heart pea, heart seed, lesser balloon vine, love in a puff
Cambodia: am baeng baek, peng poh sraom, puos am baeng
Indonesia: paria gunung
Philippines: bangkolon, kana, paspalya
Viet Nam: cây tam phong
 
DESCRIPTION
Herbaceous or slightly woody evergreen climber [up to 1–3 (–6) m high] with tendrils (slender, usually twisting structure which aids ‘climbing’); grooved stems.
Leaves: Bright green, hairless or covered in minute hairs, compound, leaflets arranged in three sets of three, narrow and tapering to a point (3–5 cm long), side leaflets smaller, margins with deep and sharp forward-pointing projections or teeth.
Flowers: White or yellow (2–3 mm long), in a few-flowered, open clusters, on long stalks (5–10 cm long); two (2 cm long) paired tendrils just below inflorescence.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, membranous inflated, nearly globular (25–30 mm long); seeds black, round, with a kidney-shaped white spot.
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in Africa; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in South America; and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, crops, plantations, gardens, forest edges/gaps, riparian areas, swamps and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Balloon vine smothers native vegetation, depriving it of sunlight and in so doing displaces native plant species. In Brazil, where C. halicacabum is considered to be native, it can reducesoybean crop yields by up to 26%(Brighenti et al., 2003; Dempsey, 2011). In Texas, there is also concern that it may contaminate certified soybean seeds since both seeds are similar in size and shape (Hurst, 1980). It is also considered to be a pest in sorghum, rice and oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia (Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Brachiaria muticahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 796
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffalo grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, Mauritius signal grass, para grass, Scotch grass
Cambodia: smau barang
Indonesia: jukut inggris, rumput malela, sukut kolonjono
Thailand: ya khon
Viet Nam: co lông tây, co lông para
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass, stoloniferous [creeping or trailing stem (culm) that grows above ground for part of its length, rooting at the nodes], culms (grass stem) up to 5 m long with upright portion tall [0.9–2 (–3) m high], sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) are hairy.
Leaves: Green, moderately hairy (15–30 cm long and 3–20 mm wide).
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (10–25 cm long and 5–10 cm wide) with 5–20 branchlets (each 2–13 cm long), each with many almost hairless flower spikelets (2.5–3.5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Sub-Saharan Africa
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder and erosion control
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, drainage ditches, lowlands, swamps, wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands replacing native wetland plants and interfering with aquatic ecosystems. Para grass chokes streams and wetlands, slowing water flow and increasing sedimentation (Arthington et al., 1983; Humphries et al., 1994; Bunn et al., 1998). In North Queensland, Australia, infestations reduced channel discharge capacity by 85% (Bunn et al., 1998) increasing the frequency and intensity of floods. Poor drainage (excessive waterlogging) can also reduce sugarcane yields by up to A $100,000 per property per annum in coastal North Queensland, Australia. In the Babinda area, Australia, cane growers spend an estimated A $23,000 each year on herbicide to control para grass in drainage ditches (Fisk, 1991). Infestations can also affect nesting habits and feeding areas for waterfowl (Humphries et al., 1994). For example, it is destroying the breeding habitat of the magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata Latham) and contributing to the decline of the endangered yellow chat (Epthianura crocea tunneyi Mathews) in the Alligator River floodplain in the Northern Territory, Australia. Infestations also increase the frequency and intensity of fires contributing to further biodiversity loss. Para grass is an alternative host for a number of agriculturally important pests and diseases (Holm et al., 1991).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Coccinea grandishot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 738
GOURD FAMILY
Cucurbitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ivy gourd, kovai fruit, little gourd, scarlet gourd, tindora
Cambodia: slok bahs, voer bahs
Indonesia: timun kecil, timun jepang
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, herbaceous vine (9–28 m long) with hairless stems, extensive tuberous root system and axillary tendrils.
Leaves: Green, hairless above and hairy below, simple, eggshaped with broad and rounded base tapering towards the end or heart-shaped (5–9 cm long and 4–9 cm wide), sometimes with 3–7 shallow to deep lobes, margins finely to minutely toothed, held alternately on stem, leaf stalks 1–3 cm long.
Flowers: White, large, star-shaped with five petals.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green
turning bright red as they mature, smooth, egg-or oval-shaped (25–60 mm long and 14–35 mm wide); stalks are 10–40 mm long.
 
ORIGIN
Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal,Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Food and ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, gardens, cropland, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Very aggressive and can smother and kill other vegetation, including large trees. In Hawaii, it smothers trees and understorey vegetation (Muniappan et al., 2009). It has the potential to invade dry forest areas on Maui and out-compete rare native plants (Starr et al., 2003a). According to Medeiros et al. (1993) C. grandis ‘would not only trigger the decline of much of the remaining biota but also transform the visual landscape to even the most casual of observers’. C. grandis is ‘an aggressive alien vine that tends to out-compete all other plants’ (Starr and Martz, 2000). It can also cover fences, power lines and other infrastructure causing economic damage. In the last two decades, C. grandis has emerged as an invasive weed in the islands of Guam and Saipan, where it is a problem plant both in managed gardens and natural areas (PIER, 2005). It is also a host for a number of crop pests in the family Cucurbitaceae including Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Aulacophora spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bemisia spp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Antigonon leptopushot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 860
KNOTWEED FAMILY
Polygonaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bride’s tears, chain of love, coral bells, coral creeper, love vine
Indonesia: bunga air mata pengantin
Malaysia: bunga berteh, bunga bonet
Philippines: cadena de amor, kantutay
Thailand: phuang-chomphuu
Viet Nam: hoa ti-gôn
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen climber or vine with tendrils, angular stems [6–10 (–15 m long]; hairless or with young shoots covered in brownish or reddish hairs; older stems brown and woody near base; underground tubers.
Leaves: Light green on upper surface, pale green below, membranous, conspicuous network of veins, heart-shaped or triangular (2.5–15 cm long and 2–10 cm wide), margins entire, wavy or bluntly toothed with pointed tips, leaf stalks 1–5 cm long, slightly winged.
Flowers: Bright pink, sometimes white, in clusters (4–20 cm long) at the tips of branches, tips of clusters ending in a short tendril. Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown, cone-shaped or three-angled (8–12 mm long and 4–7 mm wide), covered in the papery remains of the flower ‘petals.’
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and coastal sand dunes.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native trees, out-competes understorey plants and alters fire regimes (Langeland et al., 2008; USDA-NRCS, 2011). On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), it is ‘rampant on sea and inland cliffs and in previously mined areas where it may be hampering the annual migration of crabs and interfering with natural regeneration’ (Swarbrick and Hart, 2000). It has been estimated to cover 20% of the island of Saint Eustatius (Caribbean) (Ernst and Ketner, 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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