Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Acacia auriculiformishot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 436
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: earleaf acacia, Japanese acacia, northern black wattle, tan wattle
Cambodia: acacia sleuk toch, smach tehs
Indonesia: akasia kuning, pohon akasia
Malaysia: akasia kuning, bunga siam, kasia
Philippines: auri
Thailand: kratin-narong
Viet Nam: keo lá tram, tràm bông vàng
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines [8–20 (–35) m tall], trunk 60 cm in diameter, often multi-stemmed with compact spread.
Bark: Grey or brown, sometimes black at the base, smooth in young trees, becoming rough and longitudinally fissured with age. 
Leaves: Greyish-green, ‘leaves’ are flattened leaf stalks called phyllodes, slightly curved (8–20 cm long and 1.0–4.5 cm wide), hairless and thinly textured; 3–7 longitudinal veins running together towards the lower  margin or in the middle near the base, with many fine, crowded secondary veins, and a distinct gland at the base of the phyllodes.
Flowers: Light golden-orange, minute, in spikes (8.5 cm long), fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, initially straight or curved becoming twisted and coiled (6.5 cm long and 1.5 cm wide) containing shiny black seeds (0.4–0.6 cm long and 0.3–0.4 cm wide) encircled by a long red, yellow or orange structure.
 
ORIGIN
Australia and Papua New Guinea.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, pulp, erosion control, land reclamation, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native vegetation and shades out indigenous plant species. In Florida, USA, it threatens rare plant species such as the listed scrub pinweed, Lechea cernua Sm. (Cistaceae), in remnant scrub areas (K. C. Burks, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, pers. obs., in FLEPPC, 2015). In Singapore, it is very persistent in disturbed and secondary forests (Tan, 2011). It is also considered to be allelopathic, inhibiting the germination and growth of agricultural crops tested (Hoque et al., 2003).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Myriophyllum aquaticumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 423
WATERMILFOIL FAMILY
Haloragaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian water milfoil, parrot’s feather, water feather Indonesia: bulu burung, paris
Viet Nam: rong xuong cá, rong co lông chim
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, rooted aquatic plant with terminal, leafy shoots emerging 20–50 cm above the water surface; stems yellowish green (2–5 m long and 5 mm thick), roots forming at the joints.
Leaves: Pale green or bluish green, feather-like, finely divided, elongated or oval with deeply divided margins (30–45 mm long and 15 mm wide), arranged in groups of 4–6 at the tips of the stems.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, solitary in axis of leaves.
Fruits: None
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers or streams.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations exclude native plants and have multiple negative impacts on water transport, fisheries and recreation, and can increase the abundance of mosquitoes. The high tannin content also means that fish do not eat the plant. In California, control costs of this weed over a two-year period were US$ 215,000 (Anderson, 1993). Additional impacts would be similar to those of water hyacinth.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Hedychium gardnerianumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 404
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: kahili garland lily, kahili ginger, red ginger lily, wild ginger
Viet Nam: gung dai
 
DESCRIPTION
Robust, evergreen, with creeping underground stems or rhizomes [1–2 (–2.5) m high], branching surface rhizomes that can form dense mats up to 1 m thick.
Leaves: Bright green or greyish-green, glossy, upper surface hairless, lower surface sparsely hairy, narrow, tapering with pointed tips (20–45 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire; leaves held alternately on stem with a long base that sheaths the stem.
Flowers: Yellow in large clusters (15–45 cm long and 15–20 cm wide) at tips of stems; each flower has a slender red tube.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), thin-walled (about 1.5 cm long) with three compartments.
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, India and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riverbanks and damp areas.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands out-competing native species for light, space, nutrients and moisture, and its shade tolerance makes it able to thrive in forests. The thick rhizome mats also prevent the establishment of other species. Populations are now found on all islands in Hawaii (Smith, 1985). Its aggressive growth and shade tolerance means that it can form dense thickets in the understorey of open and closed-canopy Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) rainforests as well as in open habitats and forest edges around the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Anderson and Gardner, 1999). It threatens primary forest remnants in La Réunion and continuous expansion of large stands may endanger endemic lichens, vascular plants, molluscs and arthropods in the Azores. Infestations on Sao Miguel Island also threaten the Azores bullfinch. During rains, large infestations growing on steep slopes often become heavy with absorbed water and slip down slopes, contributing to erosion and gully formation.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Hedychium coronariumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 421
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: butterfly ginger, garland flower, garland lily, ginger lily, white butterfly ginger lily, white ginger, white ginger-lily, wild ginger
Indonesia: gondasuli, gandasoli, mandasuli
Malaysia: gandasuli, suli
Philippines: kamia, jing hua
Thailand: hanghong, hun kaeo, mahaahong, tha haan
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen herbaceous plant [1–2.5 (–2.5) m tall] which produces a thick mat of creeping underground stems (2.5–5 cm across) close to the soil surface, stems are reddish at base and covered by leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasp stem).
Leaves: Green, glossy, smooth, hairless, simple, sword-shaped or somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides narrowed to a slender point (50–60 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire with
prominent midvein; leaves held alternately on stem.
Flowers: White, at the tip of each unbranched stem, showy, fragrant.
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), orange-yellow, dry, smooth, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2.5–3.5 cm long) containing many seeds (6 mm long and 4 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Taiwan.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dam edges, ponds, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Forms extensive thickets which disrupt water flow in channels and displace and suppress the regeneration of native wetland plants. In Brazil, dense infestations have caused the localized extinction of Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora), a rare invertebrate, in a nature reserve established to protect it (Soares and Barreto, 2008). White ginger is a threat to Clermontia samuelii Forbes (Campanulaceae) and Labordia tinifolia A. Gray var. lanaiensis Sherff. (Loganiaceae), two endemic plant species on the Maui Nui group of islands in the Hawaiian Islands (USFWS, 1999). In St Lucia it may be replacing the rare indigenous orchid Habenaria monorrhiza [Sw] Rchb.f (Orchidaceae) (Krauss, 2012). The plant is also toxic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Canna indicahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 439
CANNA FAMILY
Cannaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: African arrowroot, canna lily, edible canna, Indian shot, purple arrowroot
Cambodia: chek tehs
Indonesia: bunga kana, buah tasbeh, ganyong, ubi pikul
Lao PDR: kwàyz ké, kwàyz ph’uttha son
Malaysia: daun tasbeh, ganjong, pisang sebiak, pisang sebiak
Myanmar: adalut, butsarana
Philippines: batag-batag, balunsaying, korintas sa kalasan, kakuwintasan, tikas-tikas
Thailand:, bua lawong, phut, phuttaa-raksaa, phutthason, tharaksa
Viet Nam: chuoi hoa, ngai hoa
 
DESCRIPTION
Robust evergreen herb (1–2 m high) with a thick, branching, underground rhizome; leaves taper into slender petioles that form a sheath (tubular structure that clasps stem) around the main stem.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, elongated or oval (20–60 cm long and 10–30 cm wide), tapering to a point, margins entire, sheath clasping the stem similar to Canna × generalis Bailey, which also has purple-bronze leaves.
Flowers: Red or orange, usually yellow below, narrow (40–50 mm long), borne singly or in pairs at the tips of the flowering stems as opposed to Canna × generalis, which are yellow, red, orange, white or other colours, broad (80–90 mm long).
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, spiny, three-valved containing hard black seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Gardens, plantations, forest edges/gaps, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dam/lake/river edges, ponds, lowlands, floodplains, swamps and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense clumps out-competing native plant species. It also restricts the flow of water contributing to increased sedimentation and flooding. Dense stands can also restrict access to water. It is also an alternative
host of a number of crop pests, including banana bunchy top virus, cucumber mosaic virus and tomato spotted wilt virus, and a range of other pests that cause pathogenic diseases. Chemical extracts have a negative impact on snail species (Tripathi and Singh, 2000).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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