Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Bugula neritinaTooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 17
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bryozoan, common bugula, brown bryozoan
 
DESCRIPTION
Bugula neritina forms flexible bushy colonies, branching biserial, to about 10cm high and is purplish-brown in colour. Zooids white and globular, with the outer corner pointed (Bishop Museum 2002, in Gordon and Mawatari, 1992). Zooids are large and measure an average of 0.97 X 0.28mm. B. neritina differs from other species in this genus in that it possesses no avicularia and no spines. The lophophore measures an average of 0.764mm in diameter and bears 23 tentacles (SMSFP 2001). Embryos brooded in ovicells are dark brown in colour and measure approximately 0.25mm in diameter (SMSFP 2001 in Winston 1982).
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Philippines
WORLD: Argentina, Australia, Bermuda, Chile, Ecuador, France, India, Italy, Korea Democratic People’s Republic of, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, Atlantic-Western Central, Belgium, Brazil, China, Egypt, Germany, Israel, Japan, Korea Republic of, Mediterranean and Black Sea, Netherlands, Panama, Puerto Rico, Turkey, United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water; Ship/boat hull fouling
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Bugula neritina attaches to oyster shells and be transferred along with oyster shippings (Cohen 2005). Bugula neritina can be transported via tiny colonies attached to the sides of ballast tanks or on floating material inside the ballast tanks (Cohen 2005). Ship/boat hull fouling is a common means of movement of Bugula neritina colonies and a likely source of ongoing introductions.
 
IMPACTS
Bryozoans are one of the main organisms to encrust and foul ships, piers, buoys and other man-made marine surfaces and structures (VMNH 2005).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Bugula neritina. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1080 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Alexandrium minutumTooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 13
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: red tide phytoplankton, red tide dinoflagellate
 
DESCRIPTION
Alexandrium minutum is a toxic single-celled armoured dinoflagellate that is well characterized morphologically in Balech, 1995. Cells are spherical in shape and small-sized, 15 to 29 um in diameter. The cell is green-brown in colour with a theca (clear protective covering). Small details on this theca differentiate A.minutum from other Alexandrium species. Cysts of A. minutum are from spherical to slightly flattened in shape and from circular (25–35 um diameter) when seen from above to oval (28–35 um long, 20–30 um wide) in lateral view. The most common cell content is granular material and a more or less condensed yellow–orange accumulation body. Nevertheless, globular content is also observed in some cysts (Bravo et al., 2006).
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Malaysia
WORLD: Atlantic – Northeast, Denmark, Ireland, Mediterranean and Black Sea, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, United States, Australia, Egypt, New Zealnd, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat Ballast Water
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
The red-tide dinoflagellate may be accidentally transferred with ballast water (Hallegraeff and Bolch 1992, NIMPIS, 2002).
 
IMPACTS
Alexandrium minutum produces toxins which are toxic to some zooplankton and fish and can reduce copepod reproduction. The toxins are bioaccumulated in zooplankton, shellfish and crabs, the consumption of which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans and other mammals.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Alexandrium minutum. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1023 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Gracilaria salicorniaTooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 13
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: red alga
Philippines: canot-canot; caocaoayan
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria salicornia varies in colour from a bright yellow at the tips to orange, green or brown at the base. The thallus is cylindrical (0.5cm in diameter) and dichotomously branched with constrictions at the base of each dichotomy. In Hawai’i it generally grows in three-dimensional mats that are tightly adherent to hard substrata and can be up to 25-40cm in thickness; in calm environments it may grow in an upright and more openly branching form (Smith Pers. Comm. 2003).
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
World: Australia, Fiji, India, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, United States, Yemen, China, Guam, Japan, Kuwait, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Reunion, South Africa, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water; Ship/boat hull fouling
Intentional release
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Gracilaria salicornia was introduced intentionally to two reefs on O'ahu, Hawai'i, in the 1970s for experimental aquaculture for the agar industry (Smith et al. 2004).A likely vector of transport of invasive marine algae is through ship fouling and/or ballast water. In Hawaii many alien algae were first collected in or around harbors and gradually dispersed to neighbouring areas (Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
IMPACTS
In tropical regions, blooms of indigenous algae (such as Gracilaria salicornia) have often been tied to reductions in grazing intensity and increases in anthropogenically derived nutrient levels (Miller et al. 1999, McClanahan et al. 2001, McCook et al. 2001, Smith et al. 2001, Stimson et al. 2001, Thacker et al. 2001, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002). G. salicornia is likely to damage native coral environments by over-growing native benthic organisms such as algae and marine invertebrates. Because of its large morphological stature and the dense mats it forms (5 to 10cm thick), G. salicornia can have large effects on benthic ecology by monopolising stratum (Smith et al. 2004). In many cases, red alga becomes ecologically dominant and grows over coral reefs. For example, in areas of Hawaii such as Waikiki G. salicornia has become the single-most dominant benthic species in an area that before invasion was home to over 60 species of macroalgae (Doty 1969, in Smith et al. 2004. The long-term consequences of phase shifts from coral to algal dominance may include the loss of biodiversity, a decrease in the intrinsic value of the reef, changes in the community structure (eg: a reduction in the numbers of reef fish dependent upon corals for habitat and shelter), and erosion of the reef (Hughes 1994, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria salicornia. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1026 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Charybdis japonicaTooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 14

SYSTEM

Marine, Terrestrial

COMMON NAMES

English: Asian crab, paddle crab, Asian paddle crab, swimming crab, blue crab

DESCRIPTION
 
Charybdis japonica have a carapace width of up to 12cm (Gust et al. 2003). They have a pilose (hairy) carapace (although amount of hair varies to little or none). The carapace has ridges with six frontal teeth, triangular and sharp. The inner supraorbital lobe is broadly triangular (Smith et al. 2003). Wee and Ng (1995) record the colour of C. japonica in Japan as mottled cream and purple. In the Waitemata harbour (New  Zealand) specimens varied from pale green and off-white, through olive green to a deep chestnut with purplish markings on the carapace and upper surfaces of the appendages (Smith et al. 2003). In addition, most Waitemata specimens have yellow-orange markings, some with only a hint of yellow-orange and some with very noticeable brown-orange on parts of the carapace and the legs, especially on the chelae where the upper colouration grades into the white to off-white ventral surfaces (Smith et al. 2003).

NATIVE RANGE

ASEAN: Malaysia, Thailand
World: China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Taiwan

KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE

New Zealand
 
PATHWAY
 
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water
 

REASON FOR INTRODUCTION

The paddle crab may have been introduced from ship ballast water (Gust et al. 2003). This is known to be a potential route of spread of the Asian paddle crab.

IMPACTS
 
Disease transmission is one of the key potential impacts of the paddle crab in introduced environments. C. japonica is known to be a host or carrier of the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) (Maeda et al. 1998, in Potential next pests 2003). WSSV is a serious fisheries threat as it infects a broad spectrum of crustaceans, and can cause cumulative mortalities of up to 100% within 3 to 10 days from the first sign of disease
(Lightner 1996, in Potential next pests 2003).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Charybdis japonica. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1044 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Xanthium strumariumhot!Tooltip 10/24/2018 Hits: 475
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: large cocklebur, noogoora bur, sheep bur
Cambodia: kropeatt chrouk
Malaysia: buah anjang
Thailand: kachab
Viet Nam: cây ké dau ngua
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, much-branched herb with erect stems (20–150 cm high) without spines; stems stout, green, brownish or reddish-brown, roughly hairy.
Leaves: Green, paler below, hairy on both surfaces, broadly eggshaped to triangular (2–8 cm long), margins irregularly toothed or lobed, on long leaf stalks (2–8 cm), held alternately on stems.
Flowers: Green, inconspicuous, in the leaf axils.
Fruits: Burrs, green turning yellowish then brown as they mature (1.5–2.5 cm long), covered with hooked spines (up to 20 mm long) and two terminal beaks.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain, but probably Central and South America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Bee forage and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, savannah, water courses, lowlands, floodplains and sandy and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly forms large stands, displacing other plant species. X.strumarium is a major weed of row crops such as soya beans, cotton, maize and groundnuts in many parts of the world, including North America, southern Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, India and Japan (Webster and Coble, 1997). It also has a damaging impact on rice production in South-east Asia (Waterhouse, 1993). In the USA, high-density cocklebur infestations have resulted in soya bean yield losses of as much as 80% (Stoller et al., 1987; Rushing and Oliver, 1998). Infestations can also decrease soya bean seed quality and harvesting efficiency (Ellis et al., 998). Even low-density cocklebur infestations in cotton fields in the USA have contributed to seed yield losses of 60–90 kg per hectare, or approximately 5% (Snipes et al.,1982). Cocklebur has also caused yield losses in groundnuts of 31–39% and 88% at low and high densities, respectively, in the southern USA (Royal et al., 1997). X. strumarium burs lodge in animal hair and in sheep’s wool, reducing the quality and increasing treatment costs (Wapshere, 1974; Hocking and Liddle, 1986). The plants are toxic to livestock and can lead to death if eaten (Weaver and Lechowicz, 1983). Cocklebur is also an alternative host for a number of crop pests (Hocking and Liddle, 1986).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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