Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Aulacaspis yasumatsuiTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 74
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: snow scale, Thai scale
 
DESCRIPTION
All adult female Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)) have a waxy outer covering for the protection of themselves and their eggs (the scale) (Weissling et al. 1999). The scale of mature females of A. yasumatsui are: white, 1.2-1.6mm long and highly variable in form. They tend to have a pyriform shape with the exuviae at one end, but are often irregularly circular, conforming with leaf veins, adjacent scales and other objects. The ventral scale is extremely thin to incomplete. The scale of the juvenile male is similar to those of other species of Diaspididae, being 0.5-0.6mm long, white and tricarinate, with exuviae at the cephalic end. Scales of males are nearly always more numerous than those of females (Howard et al. 1999). Adult males are orange-brown, and are similar in appearance to tiny flying midges, with one pair of wings and well-developed legs and antennae (Heu et al. 2003). Adult females are also orange in colour (Weissling et al. 1999).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Thailand
WORLD: China
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
WORLD: Cayman Islands; Cote D'ivoire; France; Guam; Hong Kong; New Zealand; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Puerto Rico; Taiwan; United States; Virgin Islands, U.S.
 
PATHWAY
Transport - Parasites on plants
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)) can be transported to new locations by the import of infested cycad plants. There is high potential for CAS to spread in this manner as one or more fecund females hidden in the cycad can easily escape detection (EPPO, 2005).
 
IMPACTS
Both the citrus and Asian longhorn beetles originate from Eastern Asia where they seriously damage forest and agricultural plant hosts; both pose a potential economic and ecological threat to urban and natural environments where they are introduced in North America and Europe.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Aulacaspis yasumatsui. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Aulacaspis+yasumatsui on 07-04-2020.
file icon Anoplophora chinensisTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 79
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: citrus long-horned beetle
 
DESCRIPTION
The eggs are 5.5 millimeters by 1.7 millimeters, elongate, sub-cylindrical, smooth-surfaced, and tapering at both ends; initially creamy white, they turn yellowish-brown when ready to hatch (Lieu 1945, in Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005). Larvae are typical round-headed woodborers. The legless grubs are 5 millimeters long at the time of hatching and grow to a size of 52 millimeters. They are a creamy white with some yellow/amber chitinzed patterns on the prothorax and a brown mark on the front side (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005; MAF 2005). The pupa is 27 to 38 millimeters long; it has elytra that only partially covers the membranous hind wings and curves around to the ventral surface of the body (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005). The adult citrus longhorn has a typical cerambycid beetle body shape. Females are larger than males; the male is 25 millimeters long and the female is 35 millimeters long. The beetle is glossy black to blue-black (following emergence from the tree) and finely punctuated (bearing tiny dots or points) with a series of irregular white hair spots on the elytra (EPPO Undated; Walker 2008). (The elytra is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles). The elytra of females is parallel whereas the elytra of males is distally tapered (Walker 2008). The antennae have 11 segments, the joints of the antennae are black with a blue-grey base; this gives them a striped appearance. The antennae are longer than the body (1.7 to 2 times the body-length in males and 1.2 times the body-length in females) (Walker 2008). The pronotum has a prominent pointed process on both sides. (The pronotum is the upper surface of the prothorax; the shape of the pronotum is often important in identification of beetles)
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Myanmar; Viet Nam
WORLD: China; Hong Kong; Japan; Macao
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
WORLD: France; Germany; Italy; Netherlands; United Kingdom; United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport - Container/bulk; Contaminant nursery material; Organic packing material; Timber trade; Transportation of habitat material
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
The insect could be transported in wood products including logs, lumber, wooden packing materials, pallets or dunnage (NAFC 2001).High risk goods associated with the transfer of insect pests include consignments of stones, cast iron or electronic goods imported from Asia (Krehan 2002).International trade in nursery stock is considered a high risk pathway for the spread of plant pests (Forest Research Institute 2007). Regulated plants in the European Community under recent (2008) emergency directives include: Acer spp., Aesculus hippocastanum, Alnus spp., Betula spp., Carpinus spp., Citrus spp., Corylus spp., Cotoneaster spp., Fagus spp., Lagerstroemia spp., Malus spp., Platanus spp., Populus spp., Prunus spp., Pyrus spp., Salix spp., and Ulmus spp. All consignments carrying these plant species are high-risk in terms of their potential for carrying A. chinensis individuals or infestations (Commission Of The European Communities 2008).The larvae may move in felled timber and in nursery stock. In bonsai, they are more often found in field-collected plants than those grown under supervised nursery conditions (NPPO 2008).The insect could be transported in wood products including logs, lumber, wooden packing materials, pallets or dunnage (NAFC 2001). IMPACTS Both the citrus and Asian longhorn beetles originate from Eastern Asia where they seriously damage forest and agricultural plant hosts; both pose a potential economic and ecological threat to urban and natural environments where they are introduced in North America and Europe.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Anoplophora chinensis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Anoplophora+chinensis on 07-04-2020.
file icon Anoplolepis gracilipesTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 80
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: yellow crazy ant; crazy ant; long-legged ant
Indonesia: gramang ant
 
DESCRIPTION
Anoplolepis gracilipes is one of the largest invasive ants and are typically small to medium-sized and range from 1-2mm, like Wasmannia auropunctata, to more than 5mm (Holway et al. 2002). The ant, also known as the long-legged ant, is notable for its remarkably long legs and antennae. A. gracilipes workers are monomorphic, displaying no physical differentiation (Holway et al. 2002). It has a yellow-brownish body colour, and is weakly sclerotized. Workers have a long slender gracile body, with the gaster usually darker than the head and thorax. It may subdue or kill invertebrate prey or small vertebrates by spraying formic acid.
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
WORLD: China; India; Sri Lanka
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia
WORLD: American Samoa; Australia; Caroline Islands; Chile; China; Christmas Island; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; Hong Kong; India; Japan; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States Of; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Reunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Taiwan; Tanzania, United Republic Of; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Wallis And Futuna
 
PATHWAY
Transport - Container/bulk; Contaminant nursery material; Food contaminant; Hitchhikers in or on plane; Hitchhikers on ship/boat; Machinery/equipment; Organic packing material; Timber trade; Transportation of habitat material; Vehicles
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Transported in road vehicles, machinery, boats, and aircraft. Transported in packaging material, timber.Translocated in soil, produce and timber. Transported in soil and produce.Transported in soil, packaging materials, pallets. Deliberate introductions for biological control of plant pests on coconut, coffee and cacao plantations. Transported in goods, packaging, pallets in container. Anoplolepis gracilipes has entered Australian ports in sea cargo containers in Cairns and Brisbane, Queensland, Australia and been intercepted in Fremantle, Western Australia.Translocated in soil, produce and timber. Transported in soil, packaging materials, pallets.
 
IMPACTS
Anoplolepis gracilipes (so called because of their frenetic movements) have invaded native ecosystems and caused environmental damage from Hawaii to the Seychelles and Zanzibar. On Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, they have formed multi-queen supercolonies. They are also decimating the red land crab (Gecarcoidea natalis) populations. Crazy ants also prey on, or interfere in, the reproduction of a variety of arthropods, reptiles, birds and mammals on the forest floor and canopy. Their ability to farm and protect sap-sucking scale insects, which damage the forest canopy on Christmas Island, is one of their more surprising attributes. Although less than 5% of the rainforest on Christmas Island has been invaded so far, scientists are concerned that endangered birds such as the Abbott’s booby (Sula abbotti), which nests nowhere else in the world, could eventually be driven to extinction through habitat alteration and direct attack by the ants.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Anoplolepis gracilipes. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Anoplolepis+gracilipes on 07-04-2020.
file icon Anas platyrhynchosTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 77
SYSTEM
Freshwater; Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mallard
 
DESCRIPTION
Anas platyrhynchos is a medium to large dabbling duck ranging from about 50-60 cm in length and 1-1.3 kg. It is strongly sexually dimorphic. Breeding males bear a distinctive green head, narrow white neck-ring, brown breast, brownish-gray dorsal feathers, pale gray sides and belly, black rump and under tail coverts, white outer tail, and strongly recurved black central tail feathers. Their wings are a pale gray with a distinct iridescent blue upperside and secondaries bordered with white leading and trailing edges, white under-wing coverts, and pale gray undersides. Bills are yellow to olive and legs and feet are orange to red. Females have a broken streaky pattern of buff, white, gray, to black on brown. They have white outer tail feathers and under tail coverts, a white belly, and a prominent dark eyeline. Females have similar wings to males including the distinct blue markings. Their bills are gray-black to orange and legs and feet orange to red. Non-breeding male and juvenile plummages similar to female with males bearing a dark green head and both being darker (Drilling et al., 2002; Sibley, 2003).
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Viet Nam
WORLD: Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Aruba; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bosnia And Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Guam; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic Of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of; Korea, Republic Of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libyan; Arab Jamahiriya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of; Malta; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova, Republic Of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Nepal; Netherlands; Netherlands Antilles; Nicaragua; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre And Miquelon; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan; Tajikistan; Trinidad And Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks And Caicos Islands; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uzbekistan; Yemen
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam; Thailand
WORLD: Antigua And Barbuda; Australia; Cayman Islands; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Gambia; Gibraltar; Guadeloupe; Jamaica; Kiribati; Mali; Marshall; Islands; Martinique; Micronesia, Federated States Of; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Saint Vincent And The Grenadines; Senegal; Seychelles; South Africa; Svalbard And Jan Mayen; United States; Vanuatu; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Zambia
 
PATHWAY
Escape - Farmed animals; Ornamental purpose
Release - Hunting in the wild
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Farming: Mallard domestic breeds or barnyard ducks are used worldwide for meat (Huang et al., 2007). Escapes to the wild are frequent.Anas platyrhynchos is an extremely popular game bird and has been introduced to new locations for that reason (Uyeharaet al., 2007).Anas platyrhynchos has been introduced to new locations to stock ponds (Uyehara et al, 2007).
 
IMPACTS
Introductions and range expansions of A. platyrhynchos for game purposes pose a threat of competition and hybridization to native waterfowl. Also, recent studies hold the mallard as a likely vector for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1).
 
Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Anas platyrhynchos. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Anas+platyrhynchos on 07-04-2020.
file icon Aedes albopictusTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 83
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: forest day mosquito; Asian tiger mosquito; tiger mosquito
 
DESCRIPTION
Adults are known as tiger mosquitoes due to their conspicuous patterns of very black bodies with white stripes. Also, there is a distinctive single white band (stripe) down the length of the back. The body length is about 3/16-inch long. Like all mosquitoes, Asian tiger mosquitoes are small, fragile insects with slender bodies, one pair of narrow wings, and three pairs of long, slender legs. They have an elongate proboscis with which the female bites and feeds on blood.
 
NATIVE RANGE
WORLD: Japan
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Thailand
WORLD: Albania; Argentina; Australia; Barbados; Belgium; Bermuda; Bolivia; Bosnia And Herzegovina; Brazil; Cameroon; Cayman Islands; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cuba; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; France; Gabon; Greece; Guatemala; Honduras; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Madagascar; Mexico; Montenegro; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Panama; Paraguay; Reunion; Serbia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Switzerland; ]Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan; Trinidad And Tobago; United States; Venezuela
 
PATHWAY
Transport - Container/bulk; Contaminant on plants; Transportation of habitat material; Vehicles
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
During the summer of 2001, containerised shipments from China of the plant known as Lucky Bamboo (Dracaena spp.) were found to contain A. albopictus on inspection by quarantine officers on arrival at Los Angeles, USA (Linthicum 2001, in Eritja et al. 2005). This route of spread became an issue only after traders swapped from dry freight to low cost shipping routes (which required the plants to be shipped in standing water to preserve them for the longer voyage).Movement of moist vegetation, wet tyres or water containers that can hold eggs or larvae. Movement of moist vegetation, wet tires or water containers that hold eggs or larvae. The adult flight range is quite short. Therefore, most medium and long range colonization is the result of passive transportation by humans. This may occur, for example, in the movement of used tires in trucks (Eritja et al. 2005).
 
IMPACTS
The tiger mosquito is an aggressive outdoor day biter that has a very broad host range and attacks humans, livestock, amphibians, reptiles and birds (Eritja et al. 2005). The tiger mosquito is associated with the transmission of many human diseases, including the viruses: Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Aedes albopictus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Aedes+albopictus on 07-04-2020.
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