Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Thunbergia grandiflorahot!Tooltip 10/04/2018 Hits: 258
ACANTHUS FAMILY
Acanthaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Bengal trumpet vine, blue thunbergia, blue trumpet vine, Indian sky flower
Cambodia: voer thnort
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Philippines: ag-agob, hagonoy, suga-suga, padawel, saromayag, kama-elaw
Viet Nam: dây bông xanh, bông báo
 
DESCRIPTION
A vigorous evergreen climber with rope-like stems (up to 15 m in height) with tuberous roots; young stems are green, hairy, square in cross-section, becoming brown and more rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green, somewhat hairy, simple, variable in shape from triangular with broad heart-shaped bases to egg-shaped with broad end at base (8–22 cm long and 3–15 cm wide), margins entire to irregularly toothed or with irregular pointed lobes, held opposite each other on stems.
Flowers: Pale-blue, violet or mauve with pale yellow or whitish throat, trumpet-shaped (3–8 cm long and 6–8 cm across), on elongated clusters; each flower on a stalk (4.5 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) with a rounded base (18 mm long and 13 mm wide) and a long tapered beak (2–5 cm long and about 7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Plantations, forest, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/ gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
This climber completely smothers other established plant species and prevents the regeneration of native species in invaded areas (Starr et al., 2003b). T. grandiflora has a heavy and extensive tuberous root system which can lead to riverbank destabilization and damage fences and building foundations (Motooka et al., 2003). In Queensland, Australia, it is having a negative impact on threatened lowland tropical rainforest that have been fragmented by agricultural and urban development (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007). It also climbs on to power lines causing power outages.
 

Source:

Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018

file icon Syngonium podophyllumhot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 862
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: arrowhead vine, African evergreen, goosefoot plant, American evergreen
Indonesia: Keladi-keladian
Philippines: kamay-Kastila
Viet Nam: Tróc bac, trau bà trang
 
DESCRIPTION
Rampant evergreen climber or creeping plant reaching 5-10 m when climbing over trees; young stems bluish-green, hairless, smooth, fleshy, contain milky sap, roots develop at stem joints; older stems pale brown, woody (1.5-2.5 cm thick) with aerial roots.
Leaves: Vary in colour with lower leaves dark green or with silverywhite veins and upper leaves light or dark green with no markings, all hairless with margins entire, paler undersides and on stalks (15-60 cm long) which are partly grooved; lower leaves are heart-shaped or shaped like an arrow-head (7-14 cm long) with pointed tips; intermediate leaves larger with spreading lobes; upper leaves (12-38 cm long and 16-17 cm wide) divided into three segments or leaflets.
Flowers: Whitish spikes (4-11) (5-9 cm long and 7-15 mm wide) partially enclosed in a white to greenish modified leaf (9-11 cm long), held in upper leaf forks on stalks (up to 13 cm long).
Fruits: Red to reddish-orange merging into one larger fruit, turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (3.5-7 cm long and 1.5-3.5 cm wide), usually hidden.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Climbs up into shrubs and tree shading out native vegetation and in so doing reducing native plant diversity and abundance. It has the ability to invade intact forests covering the forest floor and climbing into large and well established native trees, often causing canopy collapse due to the weight of the large stems (Space and Flynn, 2000; (Morgan et al., 2004). In Florida it is displacing a host of native plants including rare ferns (Possley, 2004). In Belize, it has invaded citrus orchards competing with trees for water and nutrients (Tzul, undated). The thick mats also harbour snakes endangering labourers working in orchards (Tzul, undated). S. podophyllum may also cause mild to severe poisoning if ingested (Morgan et al., 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Swietenia macrophyllahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1004
MAHOGANY FAMILY
Meliaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: big-leaved mahogany, broad-leaved mahogany, Honduras mahogany
Cambodia: kroab baek
Indonesia: mahoni
Malaysia: cheria mahogany
Thailand: mahokkani-bailek
Viet Nam: cây nhac ngua
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tropical tree species (up to 40–60 m high), trunk is straight, cylindrical, 3–4 m in circumference, buttresses up to 5 m high, crown of young trees is narrow, but old trees have a broad, dense and highly branched crown.
Bark: Brownish-grey to reddish-brown, deeply furrowed, scaly, inner bark red-brown or pinkish red, flaking off in small patches.
Leaves: Green, once-divided [12–45 (–60) cm long], 3–6 pairs of sword- or egg-shaped leaflets (5–12 cm long and 2–5 cm wide), margins entire gradually tapering to a sharp point.
Flowers: Small (0.5–1 cm long and 8 mm across), in clusters (10–20 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), light grey to brown, egg-shaped (12–39 cm long and 7–12 cm wide) containing 20–70 winged seeds (7–12 cm long and 2–2.5 cm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Disturbed land, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Mahogany readily invades secondary forests and forest edges and gaps preventing native species regeneration. In the lowlands of Mount Makiling, Philippines, mahogany had penetrated 250 m into secondary forests in 70 years (Baguinon, 2011). Dominance is facilitated by the fact that mahogany may also be allelopathic (Thinley, 2002). Extracts from the leaves of mahogany were shown to retard the growth of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) seedlings in the Philippines (Baguinon et al., 2003). Diversity of native plants in general was also considerably reduced under or near S. macrophylla stands. Invasive mahogany species together with other introduced plants are preventing the regeneration of dipterocarp and nondipterocarp forests in parts of Asia.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018

 

file icon Spathodea campanulatahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 847
JACARANDA FAMILY
Bignoniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: fireball, flame tree, fountain tree, Nandi flame, Nile flame, tulip tree
Cambodia: angkie dei chmool
Indonesia: pohon hujan
Viet Nam: cây hoa tuylip châu phi
 
DESCRIPTION
Large, upright tree [10–15 (–35) m tall] with trunk up to 170 cm in diameter with a dense wide crown; younger branches are almost hairless or have a sparse covering of short hairs, older branches thick with small white-coloured corky spots; shoots, buds and branchlets covered in yellow-brown hairs, slightly buttressed; sheds leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Pale, grey-brown, smooth, rough with age.
Leaves: Green, yellow-brown soft hairs on underside, large, oncedivided (50 cm long) with (7–) 11–15 (–17) broadly oval or eggshaped leaflets with base rounded and gradually tapering towards the end (15 cm long and 7.5 cm wide), margins entire, 2–3 glands at base of each leaflet, leaves oppositely arranged on stalks that are up to 6 cm long.
Flowers: Orange, showy, tulip-shaped, in dense clusters (8–10 cm long) on long stalks (10 cm long) at the end of branches, individual flower stalks short and covered in brownish hairs; there is a yellow-flowering variety.
Fruits: Pod-like (several-seeded dry fruit that splits open at maturity), green changing to brown as they mature, elongated (17–30 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo,Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Togo.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, carving, medicine, bee forage, erosion control, mulch, windbreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, forest edges/gaps and riparian areas.
 
IMPACTS
Native plants are displaced by the shading effect of the large leaves, resulting in reduced biodiversity under tree canopies (Weber, 2003). In surveys in Fiji, respondents claimed that the African tulip tree competes with crops, reduces the amount of land available for grazing livestock and leads to the loss of more desirable trees that are used for medicinal purposes and/or firewood (Brown and Daigneault, 2014). It is a weed of coffee plantations in Cuba, reducing yields (Herrera-Isla et al., 2002).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Salvinia molestahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 787
WATERMOSS FAMILY
Salviniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: aquarium water-moss, Australian azolla, butterfly fern, giant salvinia, kariba-weed, salvinia, velvet weed
Cambodia: chark toch
Indonesia: kiambang
Thailand: chawk hunu
Viet Nam: bèo ong lon
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, free-floating fern, branching horizontal stems (up to 6–25 cm long and 1.2 cm thick), submerged feathery roots.
‘Leaves’: Green or yellowish-green fronds, in pairs, oval (2–6 cm long and 10–15 mm wide); almost impossible to wet due to a covering of fine egg-beater-shaped hairs (1–3 mm long) on upper surface; undersides covered in matted brown hairs.
Flowers: None
Fruits: None, reproduces from detached fragments.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Thick mats reduce light penetration into water bodies, impacting negatively on submerged aquatic plants. Infestations also often out-compete rooted and submerged native plants and in so doing, reduce plant diversity (Sculthorpe, 1985). Benthic fauna is usually also reduced (Coates, 1982), while fish can also be impacted by changes in oxygen concentrations as S. molesta plants die and rot within water bodies (Sculthorpe, 1985). It is also a pest of rice paddies in India, where it competes for water, nutrients and space, resulting in poor crop production (Anonymous, 1987). Dense mats also provide habitats for many human disease vectors such as Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, which have been identified as vectors of West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and rural elephantiasis (Pancho and Soerjani, 1978; Chow et al., 1955; Ramachandran, 1960; Lounibos et al., 1990). Mats also harbour snails that transmit schistosomiasis (Holm et al., 1977). Infestations also impact negatively on water transport and fishing. For example, entire villages, dependent on water transport were abandoned along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea when infestations of S. molesta limited access to healthcare, education and food (Gewertz, 1983).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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