Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 474
MULBERRY FAMILY
Moraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
 
DESCRIPTION
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Austroeupatorium inulifoliumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 466
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: austroeupatorium
Indonesia: kirinyuh, babanjaran
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen spreading, scrambling shrub [1–2.8 (–5) m tall]; stems covered with dense short hairs.
Leaves: Dark green above, pale green and covered with short fine hairs below; spear-shaped (7–18 cm long and 2.5–8 cm wide), leaves held opposite each other on stem on wedge-shaped leaf stalks (0.5–3 cm long).
Flowers: White in terminal, cylindrical heads (5–6 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), 8–15 flowers in each head, fragrant.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity) brown, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides, angular (1.5 mm long), with a whitish ring of hairs (pappus) (4 mm long) on the top of the fruit.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, perennial crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, grasslands, savannah, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and invades areas planted with perennial crops reducing yields and increasing management costs. In the Philippines, it forms dense thickets in rubber, tea and rosella plantations, upland rice plantations and in clearings of secondary forests (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998). In Sri Lanka, A. inulifolium has spread into the Knuckles Conservation Area, and has invaded many ecosystems such as grasslands, plantations and roadsides. It is unpalatable to livestock and reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Ageratina adenophorahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 438
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cat weed, crofton weed, hemp agrimony, Mexican devil.
 
DESCRIPTION
A multi-stemmed evergreen herb or soft shrub [1–2 (–3) m high], young stems green, reddish or purplish covered in sticky hairs becoming woody and brownish-green or brown when mature.
Leaves: Dark green, simple, diamond-shaped or almost triangular (4–15 cm long and 3–9 cm wide) with toothed margins, three-veined from the base, held opposite each other on the stem on long stalks (about 1–6 cm long), non-aromatic.
Flowers: White flowerheads (5–8 mm across) in terminal clusters at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), bristly (about 2 mm long and 0.3–0.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Trailing branches easily root at the nodes on contact with the soil, forming dense impenetrable stands resulting in the loss of biodiversity. In Australia, infestations pose a threat to rare and endangered species. It also reduces crop yields, reduces livestockcarrying capacities and restricts movement of livestock and machinery. In Australia, it spreads so fast that dairy farmers and banana growers abandoned their land (Auld, 1969, 1970; Holm et al.,1991; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It is unpalatable to cattle and toxic to horses, who readily consume it if present.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Acacia mangiumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 441
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: brown salwood, hickory wattle, mangium
Cambodia: acacia sleuk thom
Indonesia: mangge hutan, nak, sabah salwood, tongke hutan
Philippines: maber
Thailand: krathinthepha
Viet Nam: keo tai tuong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines (30–35 m tall) and often with a straight trunk [25–50 (–90) cm in diameter].
Bark: Greenish and smooth in young trees; rough, greyish brown to dark brown, hard, fissured near the base of older trees.
Leaves: Dark green, ‘leaves’ are expanded leaf stalks called phyllodes, straight on one side and slightly curved on the other (25 cm long and 3.5–10 cm wide), 4–5 main longitudinal veins, gland conspicuous at the base of the phyllodes.
Flowers: Numerous tiny white or cream flowers in loose spikes (5–12 cm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature (8–10 cm long and 0.3–0.5 cm wide), initially straight and broad but irregularly coiled when ripe; seeds are black and shiny (3–5 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), attached to the pods by an orange-to-red folded appendage.
 
ORIGIN
Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, fibre, tannins, shade, shelter and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, croplands, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and coastal areas.
 
IMPACTS
In forests in Brunei A. mangium has displaced many native plants and, in particular, heath forest species (Osunkoya et al., 2005). The tree has also invaded fruit and coffee farms and has a negative impact on the germination and growth of two local rice varieties (Ismail and Metali, 2014). It also uses significant amounts of water, more that the natural vegetation that it replaces. By fixing nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Acacia decurrenshot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 443
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: acacia bark, early black wattle, green wattle, Sydney wattle, tan wattle
Indonesia: wartel
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines [5–10 (–15) m tall]; no visible hairs; branches prominently angled with wings or ridges that emanate from the leaf bases.
Bark: Olive-green turning grey, smooth to deeply fissured.
Leaves: Bright green, twice-divided, feathery; leaflets slender (6–15 mm long), a single raised gland occurs at the junction of each pair of leaf branchlets.
Flowers: Bright yellow, rounded clusters arranged into larger, showy, elongated compound clusters.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning dark brown as they mature, elongated, hairless, slightly flattened (2–10 cm long), containing about 11 black seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Southeast Australia
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tannins, pulp, soil conservation, windbreaks, shelter, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, grasslands, savannah, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
The accumulation of dead/rotting foliage forms a thick ground cover which, over time, eliminates the growth and establishment of other vegetation (Ruskin, 1983). When it forms dense thickets along waterways it reduces water flow and can contribute to flooding (Hill et al., 2000) and streambank erosion. It has a significant impact on water runoff, and because it fixes nitrogen, it alters soil nutrient cycling. Its pollen is reported to be allergenic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
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