Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Panicum repenshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 780
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bullet grass, couch panicum, creeping panic grass, quack grass, torpedograss
Cambodia: smau phluk
Indonesia: rumput lampuyangan
Philippines: luya-luyahan, pagudpel, parayparay
Viet Nam: co gung, co cua gà, co ong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass with culms (flowering stem) (1 m in height) arising from long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips.
Leaves: Green, linear, flat or folded (7–25 cm long and 2–8 mm wide) with a whitish, waxy covering; leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) hairless or hairy, with hairs usually restricted to the upper margins; ligule (thin outgrowth at junction of the leaf and leaf stalk) is membranous with short hairs.
Flowers: Branched, open inflorescences (7–22 cm long) with 1–3 branchlets per node.
 
ORIGIN
Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Greece and Italy in Europe.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Forage
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, lowlands, floodplains, wetlands, gullies,lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native vegetation, particularly in or near shallow waters. It is also a serious weed in a wide range of perennial crops including sugarcane in Taiwan and Hawaii; pineapple in West Africa; tea in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka; various orchard crops in Thailand; rubber, coconut and oil palm in Malaysia; and rice in Indonesia and Sri Lanka (Holm et al., 1977). In Taiwan, rhizome density can reach 15 tons per hectare, while a density of 5 tons per hectare can result in a 50% reduction in sugarcane yield (Peng and Sze, 1974). P. repens may act as an alternative host to the rice leafhopper (Holm et al., 1977).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Mikania micranthahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 913
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American rope, bitter vine, Chinese creeper, climbing hemp vine, mile-a-minute weed
Cambodia: voer tun trean khaet
Indonesia: caputuheun, mikania, sembung rambat
Malaysia: cheroma, ulam tikus
Viet Nam: cây cúc leo
 
DESCRIPTION
A branched, scrambling, slender-stemmed, fast-growing, evergreen vine; stem slightly ribbed lengthwise, hairless or slightly hairy.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, heart-shaped or triangular with a pointed tip and a broad base (4–13cm long and 2–9 cm wide), 3–5 veined from base, margins are coarsely toothed; leaves held in opposite pairs along the stems with leaf stalks 2–8 cm long.
Flowers: Fluffy white to greenish-white, often with purple tinge (3–6 mm long), in dense clusters in the forks of the leaves or at the ends of the branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, linear to elongated with almost parallel sides, five-angled (1.2–2 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba,Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St. Lucia, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, riversides and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly smothers native plants and crops. It is considered to be one of the worst weeds of plantation crops in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In Southeast Asia, it affects yields of cocoa, coconut, orchards, rubber, oil palm, vegetables and rice (Waterhouse, 1993). The annual cost of controlling M. micrantha was estimated at US $9.8 million for rubber, oil palm and cocoa crops in Malaysia (Teoh et al., 1985). In Samoa, it has led to the abandonement of coconut plantations where it is also known tohave killed large breadfruit trees. In Papua New Guinea, about 45% of all respondents estimated that M. micrantha causes yield losses in excess of 30% (Day et al., 2012). In summer, the dried aerial parts are also a fire hazard allowiing fires to penetrate deeper into forests and other natural vegetation.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Merremia peltatahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 814
MORNING GLORY FAMILY
Convolvulaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: merremia
Indonesia: mantangan
Malaysia: akar sambaing
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen robust vine or climber, with large subterranean tubers; stems smooth (up to 30 m high) emitting a milky latex when damaged.
Leaves: Green, hairless above, purple veins below with scattered hairs, simple, almost round but abruptly tapering to a sharp point (7.5–30 cm long and 7–20 cm wide), held alternately on stems, leaf stalk attached to the underside of the leaf blade instead of at its base or margin (3–24 cm long).
Flowers: Usually white, funnel-shaped, large (5–6 cm wide), in clusters on stalks (15–30 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) (15 mm long), splitting into many valves; seeds brown.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain but assumed to be native to Pemba, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, northern Australia and eastwards into Polynesia to the Society Islands. Different biotype may be invasive in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Indonesia.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, land restoration and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps and woodland edges/gaps.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation to the detriment of plant and animal life. In Vanuatu, it is considered to be one of the most important weeds of plantation forestry and is one of two major specie sthreatening natural regeneration in logged or disturbed areas (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In Indonesia, it also inhibits and/or prevents the movement of threatened and rare species such as elephants, rhinos and tigers.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Limnocharis flavahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 779
WATER POPPY FAMILY
Limnocharitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bur head, limnocharis, sawah lettuce, velvetleaf, yellow burrhead
Cambodia: trakiet paong
Indonesia: bangeng, eceng, enceng, berek, gunda, genjer
Lao PDR: kaanz choong
Malaysia: jinjir, paku rawan
Thailand: bon cheen, bonchin, nangkwak, talapatrusi, taalapat ruesee
Viet Nam: cây cù nèo, kèo nèo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen clump-forming, aquatic, herbaceous, rooted to the ground and emerges above the water surface (20–120 cm tall); large fleshy leaves borne in clusters along a short thick erect stem (about 3 cm long and 3 cm wide), contains a milky sap.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, triangular to rounded (5–30 cm long and 4–25 cm wide), margins entire or wavy, borne on long three-angled (triangular) stalks (5–90 cm long).
Flowers: Yellow, in clusters containing 2–15 flowers at the top of three-angled stalks (20–120 cm long).
Fruits: Rounded ‘capsules’ (15–20 mm across), that split up into several floating segments when mature.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, water courses, floodplains, swamps, wetlands and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Dominates invaded water bodies displacing other aquatic plant and animal species. It has become a serious weed in rice paddies and chokes irrigation and drainage canals (Waterhouse, 2003) facilitating siltation and reducing water discharge capacity (Kotalawala, 1976). In some cases, infestations are so severe leading to the abandonment of rice fields. Invaded areas also provide ideal breeding grounds for disease vectors such as mosquitoes, contributing to the spread of diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever (Abhilash et al., 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Eichhornia crassipeshot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 688
PICKEREL WEED FAMILY
Pontederiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: lilac devil, Nile lily, pickerelweed, water hyacinth, water orchid
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, free-floating, aquatic plant that may become anchored in shallow water; [10–20 (–100) cm high]; roots are long and feathery; runners (10 cm long) are produced across the water surface and give rise to new plants.
Leaves: Dark green, shiny, hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped to almost rounded (2–25 cm long and 2–15 cm wide) with swollen bladder-like stems (30 cm long).
Flowers: Pale violet or blue (4–6 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide), upper petal of each flower has a prominent yellow-centred patch; flowers in clusters of 8–10.
Fruits: Capsules (a dry fruit that opens at maturity) (10–15 mm long), containing very fine seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
This aquatic weed has the ability to form thick mats which hamper water transport; inhibit or even prevent fishing-related activities; block waterways and canals; hamper hydroelectricity generation; and provide breeding sites for vectors of human and animal diseases, increasing the incidence of malaria, encephalitis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, river blindness and possibly cholera (Burton, 1960; Spira et al., 1981; Gopal, 1987; Viswam et al., 1989). The thick mats reduce light penetration into the water, causing declines in the concentrations of phytoplankton that support the zooplankton–fish food chain. Extensive mats of water hyacinth increase water loss through evapotranspiration, and impact rice production (Waterhouse, 1993). In southern Benin, an infestation of water hyacinth reduced the annual income of 200,000 people by about US $84 million (de Groote et al., 2003). Lost revenues for men were mostly fishing-related, while women experienced lost revenues in trade, primarily of food crops and fish.
 
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018.

 

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