Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Salvinia molestahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 754
WATERMOSS FAMILY
Salviniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: aquarium water-moss, Australian azolla, butterfly fern, giant salvinia, kariba-weed, salvinia, velvet weed
Cambodia: chark toch
Indonesia: kiambang
Thailand: chawk hunu
Viet Nam: bèo ong lon
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, free-floating fern, branching horizontal stems (up to 6–25 cm long and 1.2 cm thick), submerged feathery roots.
‘Leaves’: Green or yellowish-green fronds, in pairs, oval (2–6 cm long and 10–15 mm wide); almost impossible to wet due to a covering of fine egg-beater-shaped hairs (1–3 mm long) on upper surface; undersides covered in matted brown hairs.
Flowers: None
Fruits: None, reproduces from detached fragments.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Thick mats reduce light penetration into water bodies, impacting negatively on submerged aquatic plants. Infestations also often out-compete rooted and submerged native plants and in so doing, reduce plant diversity (Sculthorpe, 1985). Benthic fauna is usually also reduced (Coates, 1982), while fish can also be impacted by changes in oxygen concentrations as S. molesta plants die and rot within water bodies (Sculthorpe, 1985). It is also a pest of rice paddies in India, where it competes for water, nutrients and space, resulting in poor crop production (Anonymous, 1987). Dense mats also provide habitats for many human disease vectors such as Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, which have been identified as vectors of West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and rural elephantiasis (Pancho and Soerjani, 1978; Chow et al., 1955; Ramachandran, 1960; Lounibos et al., 1990). Mats also harbour snails that transmit schistosomiasis (Holm et al., 1977). Infestations also impact negatively on water transport and fishing. For example, entire villages, dependent on water transport were abandoned along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea when infestations of S. molesta limited access to healthcare, education and food (Gewertz, 1983).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Prosopis juliflorahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 696
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: algorroba, ironwood, mesquite
Philippines: aroma
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or tree with thorns/spines, multi-stemmed but occasionally single stemmed [3–5 (15) m high], twigs distinctively zigzag.
Bark: Thick, rough grey-green, scaly with age and armed with sharp thorns/spines (up to 5 cm long).
Leaves: Dark green, hairless or hairy, twice-divided, 1–3 (–4) pairs of leaf branchlets (3–11 cm long) each with 11–15 pairs of leaflets, narrow, somewhat elongated with parallel sides (6–23 mm long and 1.6–5.5 mm wide), with smooth margins, no terminal leaflet, leaves grow alternately on stem. Flowers: Yellow, small, in cylindrical spikes (5–10 cm long and 1.5 cm side), solitary or in clusters near the leaf axils, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning yellow as they mature, flat, slightly curved (8–29 cm long and 9–17 mm wide), containing 10–20 oval seeds (2–8 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, timber, fodder, tannin, landscape restoration, windbreaks, shade, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, fallow land, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation, floodplains, gullies and sandy stream beds.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and reduces the abundance and diversity of bird and other animal species. In Ethiopia, P. juliflora has reduced understorey basal cover for perennial grasses and reduced the number of grass species from seven to two (Kebede and Coppock, 2015). By transforming habitats and eliminating pasture species, it threatens the survival of Grévy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) in invaded areas (Kebede and Coppock, 2015). Other negative impacts include encroachment onto paths, villages, homes, water sources, crop- and pasturelands; and injuries inflicted by the thorns (Maundu et al., 2009). Infestations have contributed to the abandonment of agricultural land, homes and small villages. The pollen has been identified as a major allergen (Killian and McMichael, 2004). In semi-arid parts of Africa, P. juliflora has depleted the natural resources on which thousands of people depend, spawning conflict between communities over the diminishing resources.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Pistia stratioteshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 702
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Nile cabbage, tropical duckweed, water cabbage, water lettuce
Cambodia: chark Thom
Indonesia: apon-apon, apu-apu, kiapu
Malaysia: kiambang
Thailand: chok, jawg
Viet Nam: bèo cái
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, usually free-floating aquatic plant; consists of a rosette of leaves (30 cm across) with a tuft of long, feathery roots (up to 80 cm long); plants develop runners (up to 60 cm long); resemble floating lettuces.
Leaves: Pale yellow-green or greyish-green, spongy, narrow at the base and rounded at the tips (2.5–15 cm long and 2–8 cm wide), margins with a series of curved projections, leaves ribbed with 6–15 longitudinal veins radiating from the base; soft white velvety hairs are found on the top and bottom of the leaf which repel water.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, pale green or white, arising from leaf forks.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), small, green, eggshaped or oval, (5–10 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Water lettuce infestations contribute to increased rates of siltation, slowing of water flow rates, degradation of fish nesting sites, increased nutrient loading, thermal stratification, increased alkalinity, and fish and macro-invertebrate mortality (Dray and Center, 2002). Mats of water lettuce block waterways, making navigation difficult. Mats of the weed also hamper fishing activities, interfere with hydroelectricity generation and hinder flood control efforts. They provide habitats for vectors of disease, and can interfere with rice production (Holm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Passiflora suberosahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 719
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cork passion flower, small passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Viet Nam: lac tiên ban
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, slender vine/climber or creeper, stems (up to 6 m in length) producing tendrils in the leaf forks, young stems are round or sometimes angular, becoming corky at the base with age.
Leaves: Dark green, simple (3–11 cm long and 4–12 cm wide), with three-pointed lobes, margins occasionally entire, leaves held alternately on the stems and borne on stalks (0.5–4 cm long).
Flowers: White to pale green, small (15–25 mm wide), on stalks (1.5–2.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning bluish-black or purplish-black as it matures, rounded (1–1.5 cm wide), contain numerous wrinkled seeds (3–4 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation reducing biodiversity. This climber, together with other invasive plant species, threatens Platydesma cornuta Hillebr. var. decurrens B.C. Stone (Rutaceae), a rare shrub endemic on Oahu of which only about 200 individual plants remain (Richardson, 2007). It also invades sugarcane fields and Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Mauritius (Seeruttun et al., 2005). Areas covered with dead and dying native plants become a fire hazard or increase the potential for erosion (Garrison et al., 2002). It is apparently toxic to cattle and ducks (Everist, 1974).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Passiflora foetidahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1118
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: foetid passion flower, passion flower, stinking passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Cambodia: voer saw maw
Indonesia: buah tikus, ceplukan blunsun, katceprek, katjeprek, lemanas, permot, permot rajutan, rambaton blunsun
Lao PDR: nya ham ho
Malaysia: pokok lang bulu, timun dendang
Myanmar: chin-gya-thee-pin, su-ka
Philippines: belon-belon, kurunggut, lupok-lupok, masaflora, melon meleonan, taungan, pasionariang-mabaho, prutas taungan
Thailand: ka thok rok
Viet Nam: chùm bao, nhãn long
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, tendril climber; stems sometimes angular (up to 15 m high); tendril at the base of each leaf stalk together with a stipule (threadlike appendage) covered in sticky glands; stems have an unpleasant odour.
Leaves: Glossy dark-green above, simple, deeply three-lobed, but sometimes entire or five-lobed (3–10.5 cm long and 3–10 cm wide), margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth; leaves held alternately on stems and borne on stalks (1–6 cm long).
Flowers: White or purplish (3–5 cm across), borne singly on stalks (2–4.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), greenishyellow turning yellow/orange as it matures, round, dry, large (1.5–4 cm long), hairless, partially enclosed by the sticky bracts.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, edible fruit, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, savannah and riparian zones.
 
IMPACTS
In parts of Malaysia it is a serious weed of maize and rubber. It also impacts negatively on coconut production in the Pacific, on maize, sugarcane and cotton in Thailand, on oil palm in Indonesia, on taro in Samoa, and on various other crops in Sarawak (Holm et al., 1997). It is an alternative host for a number of diseases which affect cultivated passion fruit.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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