Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Piper aduncumhot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 484
PEPPER FAMILY
Piperaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bamboo piper, false matico, jointwood, piper
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree (6–8 m tall), with short stilt roots, often in thickets, branches are erect, but with drooping twigs and swollen, purplish nodes, foliage and twigs aromatic. Bark: Yellow-green, finely hairy stems and enlarged, ringed nodes.
Leaves: Green, softly hairy beneath, broadly sword- to oval-shaped (13–25 cm long and 3.5–8 cm wide), tapering into long tips with the base asymmetric, short leaf stalks.
Flowers: Yellowish, tiny, in long curving spikes opposite the leaves.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green, small, egg-shaped, compressed into greyish, worm-like spikes.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, spice and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps, lowlands and riparian zones.
 
IMPACTS
P. aduncum establishes dense stands which shade out native species and prevent forest regeneration. In field surveys in Papua New Guinea, it was found to be present in all garden plots, 92% of riverine plots, 80% of young secondary and 65% of old secondary forest plots, and 75% of the gaps (Leps et al., 2002). In regenerating areas, P. aduncum sometimes attained a canopy cover of 75% and suppressed the native species which local communities utilized extensively in the past (Leps et al., 2002). In the Pacific, it is accidentally harvested with kava (Piper methysticum G. Forst), an important crop, lowering its quality. It also competes with kava and other crops and may act as a host for kava pests and pathogensm (Plant Protection Service, 2001). It consumes large quantities of water, drying out the soil, and absorbs significant amounts of nutrients to the detriment of crops.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Parthenium hysterophorushot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 453
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: carrot weed, carrot grass, congress weed, famine weed, ragweed, white top.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual erect herb, much branched [0.5–1.5 (–2) m high], forms a basal rosette of leaves when young, green stems are longitudinally grooved or ribbed and covered in short hairs.
Leaves: Pale green, covered with short stiff hairs; rosette and lower stem leaves are deeply divided and large (3–30cm long and 2–12 cm wide); upper stem leaves are shorter and less divided
Flowers: White, in small compact heads (5 mm across), clustered at the tips of branches, each flowerhead has five distinctive petals.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), (1.5–2.5 mm long), five in each flowerhead.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Grenadines, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, ornament and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, riversides, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Parthenium disrupts grasslands, invades woodlands and generally disturbs native vegetation through aggressive competition (Evans, 1997). Parthenium is allelopathic, reducing crop yields, and displacing palatable species in natural and improved pasture. In India, parthenium infestations have resulted in yield losses of up to 40% in several crops (Khosla and Sobti, 1979). Parthenium is also a secondary host for a range of crop pests. In terms of pasture production, this noxious weed has been found to reduce livestock carrying capacities by as much as 90% (Jayachandra, 1971). It also poses serious health hazards to livestock, and can cause severe allergenic reactions in people who regularly come into contact with the weed.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Opuntia strictahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 437
CACTUS FAMILY
Cactaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Australian pest pear, common pest pear, erect prickly pear, sour prickly pear.
 
DESCRIPTION
Succulent erect, spreading shrub [0.5–1.3 (–2) m high]; thicketforming; modified stems called cladodes are blue-green, longer than broad (10–20 cm long and 7.5–14 cm wide); 3–5 areoles (raised structures or bumps on the stems of cacti, out of which grow clusters of spines) per diagonal row on each cladode; 1–2 straight and flattened yellow spines (1.5–4 cm long) usually restricted to marginal areoles as opposed to O. stricta (Ahw.) Haw. var. dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Benson where there are 4–7 (–11) banded spines (1.5–4 cm long) on most areoles.
Leaves: Cylindrical, minute and shed early.
Flowers: Yellow and large (5–6 cm long and 5–6 cm wide).
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning red-purple as they mature, egg-shaped (4–6 cm long and 2.5–3 cm wide), outer surface smooth with clusters of glochids (barbed hairs or bristles), narrowed at the base, purple sour pulp, white seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Ecuador, Mexico, Southern USA, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, rocky outcrops, savannah, grassland and riverbanks in arid to semi-arid regions.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands, preventing access to homes, water resources and pasture. On Madagascar, O. stricta has invaded land used for crop and pasture production, and has encroached on villages and roads, impeding human mobility (Larsson, 2004). Here, the cactus has had a negative impact on native grasses and herbs, and it is even affecting trees by inhibiting their growth and regeneration (Larsson, 2004). The small spines (known as glochids) on the fruit, when consumed by livestock, lodge in their gums, on their tongues, or in their gastrointestinal tracts, causing bacterial infections, while the hard seeds may cause rumen impaction, which can be fatal, and which often leads to excessive, enforced culling of affected animals (Ueckert et al., 1990). People who consume the fruits develop diarrhoea and may suffer from serious infections caused by the spines (Larsson, 2004). In Kenya, O. stricta infestations have resulted in the abandonment of farmlands.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Mimosa pudicahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 458
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: common sensitive plant, shame plant, sleeping grass, touchme-not
Cambodia: preah klab sampeahs, preah khlab, sampeahs
Indonesia: putri malu, sikejut
Lao PDR: nya nyoub
Myanmar: tee-kayone
Philippines: babain, bain-bain, hibi-hibi, torog-torog
Thailand: yaa pan yot
Viet Nam: cây xau ho, co trinh nu
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen prickly herbaceous plant or small shrub, creeping or sprawling [15–50 (–100) cm high]; stems reddish-brown to purplish, round, sparse prickles (2–2.5 mm long).
Leaves: Yellowish-green, sparsely hairy, twice-divided, 1–2 pairs of leaflet branchlets (2.5–8 cm long) each bearing 10–25 pairs of elongated leaflets with almost parallel sides (6–15 mm long and 1–3 mm wide), margins entire, borne on stalks (1.5–6 cm long), leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Lilac or pink in fluffy round heads or clusters (9–15 mm across) held on bristly stalks (1–4 cm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, elongated with almost parallel sides, flattened (1–2.5 cm long and 3–6 mm wide), held in clusters covered in bristles, prickles along their margins, break transversely into segments; seeds are light brown, flattened (2.5–3 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, tannins, forage for bees, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, gardens, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, wetlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Is a fire hazard and poses a significant threat to native flora. It is a serious pest of crops and pastures throughout the tropics (Holm et al., 1979). Infestations of M. pudica can lead to a 10–70% reduction in upland rice yields in Kerala, India (Joseph and Bridgit, 1993). It is also considered a serious weed of sugarcane, sorghum, maize, soybean (Holm et al., 1977), tomatoes, pineapples, cotton (Lee Soo Ann, 1976; Waterhouse and Norris, 1987), rubber, tea, coffee, coconut, oil palm, banana, mango, papaya, citrus and even Acacia mangium plantations in Indonesia (Nazif, 1993). Mimosa also invades pasture and can be toxic to livestock. It is suspected of poisoning cattle in Papua New Guinea (Henty and Pritchard, 1975) and has caused stunted growth in chickens in Indonesia (Kostermans et al., 1987).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Mimosa pigrahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 444
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Sub-family: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bashful bush, black mimosa, giant mimosa, giant sensitive plant
Cambodia: banla uyyas, banla yuon, deoum klab yeik; Indonesia: ki kerbau, putri malu
Malaysia: kembang gajah, semalu gajah
Thailand: maiyaraap ton, mai yah raap yak
Viet Nam: trinh nu thân go, trinh nu dam lay
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree (3–6 m high), forming dense thickets, young stems green, rounded, armed with scattered prickles (5–12 mm long), taproot is 1–2 m deep.
Bark: Older stems grey and woody.
Leaves: Yellowish-green, with short fine hairs below, twice-divided (20–31 cm long), straight thorn at the junction of each of the 6–16 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each branchlet with 20–45 pairs of small elongated leaflets (3–12 mm long and 0.5–2 mm wide), leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Pink or mauve, in fluffy round heads (1–2 cm wide), borne singly or in groups of two or three, on stalks (2–7 cm long), arising from each upper leaf fork.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flat and elongated (3–12 cm long and 7–14 mm wide), covered in bristly hairs, borne in clusters (1–30), break transversely into 14–26 segments; seeds greenish-brown to light brown (4–6 mm long and 2–2.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Green manure, nitrogen fixation, medicine, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, riversides, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake edges and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations of M. pigra contribute to a decline in abundance and diversity of species of plants and animals. In Tram Chim National Park, Vietnam, it has reduced the density of native plant species threatening the vulnerable sarus crane (Grus antigone L.) (Triet and Dung, 2001). M. pigra thickets in Australia had fewer plants, birds and lizards, than native vegetation (Braithwaite et al., 1989). In Lochinvar National Park, Zambia, infestations reduced bird diversity by almost 50% and abundance by more than 95% (Shanungu, 2009). In Cambodia, farmers ranked mimosa as the most significant problem affecting rice farming, ‘ahead of pests, rodents, and drought problems’ (Chamroeun et al., 2002). M. pigra also hampers fishing activities and prevents access to water bodies.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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