Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Lantana camarahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 236
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: curse of India, lantana, Spanish flag, tickberry, prickly lantana, white sage
Cambodia: phka chenh chien, phka kang, phka arch meann
Indonesia: kembang telek, tembelekan, tahi ayam
Lao PDR: dok mai khiu
Myanmar: sein-na-ban
Philippines: asin-asin, bahu-bahu, sapinit, sapor, sari-sari, sibsibit
Thailand: pagaknong
Viet Nam: bông oi, cây ngu sac
 
DESCRIPTION
Compact, untidy long-lived shrub/scrambler (up to 2 m or higher), forming dense thickets; stems are usually green turning grey or brown with age, square in cross-section with short hairs and hooked/recurved prickles/thorns.
Leaves: Dark green, rough hairy, simple, egg-shaped (2–13 cm long and 1.5–7 cm wide) with pointed tips, margins toothed/rough, wrinkled appearance, held opposite each other on stems, smell strongly when crushed.
Flowers: Small red, pink, crimson, orange, yellow or white flowers borne in dense clusters (2–4 cm across), with each cluster containing about 20–40 flowers; clusters on stalks (2–10 cm long); individual flowers are
tubular (9–14 mm long and 4–10 mm across).
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially shiny green turning purplish-black when mature (5–8 mm across), one-seeded.
 
ORIGIN
Bahamas, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Mexico and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedging/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, disturbed land, wasteland, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, water courses, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Lantana forms dense impenetrable thickets reducing biodiversity and threatening the continued existence of a host of rare and endangered species. Turner and Downey (2010) identified 275 plant and 24 native animal species in Australia that are threatened by the presence of lantana. In crop production systems in Southeast Asia, it reduces yields and increases management costs for those growing durian, pineapple, banana and rubber (Waterhouse, 1993). It is also toxic to livestock with pastoral losses in Queensland in 1985, estimated to be A$ 7.7 million, as a result of 1,500 animal deaths, reductions in productivity, loss of pasture and control costs (van Oosterhout, 2004). In South Africa, lantana poisoning accounts for about 25% of all reported livestock poisoning by plants (Wells and Stirton, 1988). There have also been some recorded fatalities in people, after consumption of the green fruit. Lantana can also alter fire regimes, allowing fires to penetrate into forests and woodlands.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Jatropha gossypiifoliahot!Tooltip 10/12/2018 Hits: 258
SPURGE FAMILY
Euphorbiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American purging nut, bellyache bush, red fig-nut flower, red physic nut, wild cassava.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect shrub [1–3 (4) m tall]; older stems are thick and succulent-like; young branches are purplish and hairy; young shoots exude a brownish latex when damaged.
Leaves: Reddish-brown to dark bronze or purplish turning bright green with age, hairless, simple (4.5–10 cm long and 5–13 cm wide), usually with 3 or 5 deep lobes, 3–5 veins from the base, margins glandular and minutely toothed; leaf stalks are 6–9 cm long and covered in sticky hairs.
Flowers: Five dark red or deep purple petals with yellow centre, borne in branched clusters (8–15 cm long) at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), glossy green turning brown as they mature, three-lobed, slightly hairy, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides to almost round (about 12 mm long and 10 mm wide), containing three large light brown seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, natural oils, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open space, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, gullies and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
This weed forms dense thickets, especially in riparian areas where it readily displaces native plant species and prevents their regeneration. It also significantly reduces livestock carrying capacities outcompeting valuable forage species. Although the plant is not consumed by livestock, accidental ingestion does occur. In 1995, in northern Queensland, Australia, 312 head of livestock died (290 cattle, 7 horses and 15 goats) after accidentally consuming the plant during a drought (Csurhes, 1999).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Duranta erectahot!Tooltip 10/11/2018 Hits: 257
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian skyflower, forget-me-not tree, golden dew drop, golden tears
Indonesia: sinyo nakal
Viet Nam: thanh quan
 
DESCRIPTION
Usually evergreen, multi-stemmed, shrub or small tree [2–4 (–7) m high]; sometimes scrambling, branches with a drooping habit; sometimes with spines in the leaf stalks; branches four-angled.
Leaves: Dark to light green, sparsely hairy to hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped (15–90 mm long and 12–60 mm wide), margins usually entire but sometimes toothed towards the leaf tips, held opposite each other on stem or occasionally in whorls of three.
Flowers: Lilac, light blue, pale purple or white, tubular-shaped (9–18 mm long), in elongated clusters or sprays up to 30 cm long at the ends of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially green turning orange-yellow as they mature, round or almost round (5–14 mm wide), shiny, with a curved beak at one end, borne in large clusters.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Southern USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
D. erecta has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plants, and the organisms associated with them. It is allelopathic and also has the ability to climb into woodland or forest canopies. Its toxicity has been known for over 100 years when the ingestion of fruit was inferred to have killed a two-year-old boy in Queensland, Australia, in the late 19th century (Wheeler, 1895). It has also caused the death of numerous pets (Scanlan et al., 2006) and poisoned cattle (Sutherland, 1953).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Clidemia hirtahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 270
TIBOUCHINA FAMILY
Melastomataceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Koster’s curse, soap bush
Indonesia: harendong bulu
Viet Nam: co saphony
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub [0.5–3 (–5) m tall], branchlets rounded, covered with large reddish-brown hairs/bristles.
Leaves: Light green, upper surfaces with a few hairs, lower surfaces more densely hairy, simple, oval or egg-shaped (5–18 cm long and 3–8 cm wide) with pointed tips, 5–7 prominent veins from the base running almost parallel; margins finely toothed, leaves appear wrinkled or pleated, leaves held opposite each other on stem.
Flowers: White or sometimes pale pink, in clusters in the leaf forks or tips of branches, on a short flower stalk (0.5–1 mm long); base of flower is swollen into a cup-shaped structure.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), dark blue, purplish or blackish, globular (4–9 mm across), covered in hairs/bristles; seeds are light brown (0.5–0.75 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, pasture, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps and riversides.
 
IMPACTS
This invasive plant has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plant species. Smith (1985) characterized the impacts of C.hirta as ‘devastating’ in Hawaii, where it threatens the extinction of endemic species. In Tanzania, it suppresses native herbs (Pocs, 1989), while in Fiji, it renders grazing land useless and retards the development of rubber and cocoa plantations. In Southeast Asia, it invades orchards and rubber and oil palm plantations where it reduces yields and increases management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). It came to be known as ‘Koster’s curse’ after being accidentally introduced to Fiji by Koster and its subsequent impacts
(curse) on plantation crops. It is also toxic to livestock (Francis, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Chromolaena odoratahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 271
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: chromolaena, devil weed, paraffin bush, Siam weed, triffid weed, turpentine weed
Cambodia: tuntrien khaet
Indonesia: kerinyu, tekelan
Lao PDR: nya khi law
Myanmar: kone-be-da, ne-da-ban, zama-ni
Philippines: dalayday, gonoy, hagonoy, talpus-palad
Thailand: saap suea
Viet Nam: co lào
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub, which may take the form of a scrambler when growing among trees (3–7 m high), often forming dense thickets; stems yellowish-green and somewhat hairy, woody towards the base with wide-spreading branches; deep taproot.
Leaves: Light green, hairy, simple, triangular (5–12 cm long and 3–7 cm wide), pointed, margins toothed, three conspicuous veins from the base; leaves held opposite each other on stem, smell strongly of turpentine when crushed.
Flowers: Mauve, in cylindrical heads (about 10 mm long and 3 mm wide) clustered at the ends of stems.
Fruits: Achene (small, dry, one-seeded fruit that doesn’t open at maturity), straw-coloured, bristly (4–5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, plantation crops, managed pastures, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, savannah, natural pasture, riparian vegetation, lowlands 
and floodplains.
 
IMPACTS
One mature plant can produce approximately one million seeds per year. Its ability to form dense impenetrable thickets leads to the displacement of native plant species and the dry stems and leaves, which are rich in oils, also increase fire intensities (McFadyen, 2004) contributing to additional biodiversity loss. In South Africa, infestations have a negative impact on the breeding biology of the Nile crocodile (Leslie and Spotila, 2001), while in Cameroon, it displaces native species in the family Zingiberaceae, a major food source for the endangered western lowland gorilla (van der Hoeven and Prins, 2007). In Southeast Asia, it is also a serious weed of oil palm, rubber, coffee, cashew, fruit and forestry (Waterhouse, 1993). In fact ‘some agricultural areas in Southeast Asia have been abandoned because Siam weed has taken over pasture and crops’ (CRC for Weed Management, 2003). It also causes serious health problems in livestock and people (Soerohaldoko, 1971; Sajise et al., 1974) and significantly reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
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