Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Ageratina adenophorahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 235
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cat weed, crofton weed, hemp agrimony, Mexican devil.
 
DESCRIPTION
A multi-stemmed evergreen herb or soft shrub [1–2 (–3) m high], young stems green, reddish or purplish covered in sticky hairs becoming woody and brownish-green or brown when mature.
Leaves: Dark green, simple, diamond-shaped or almost triangular (4–15 cm long and 3–9 cm wide) with toothed margins, three-veined from the base, held opposite each other on the stem on long stalks (about 1–6 cm long), non-aromatic.
Flowers: White flowerheads (5–8 mm across) in terminal clusters at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), bristly (about 2 mm long and 0.3–0.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Trailing branches easily root at the nodes on contact with the soil, forming dense impenetrable stands resulting in the loss of biodiversity. In Australia, infestations pose a threat to rare and endangered species. It also reduces crop yields, reduces livestockcarrying capacities and restricts movement of livestock and machinery. In Australia, it spreads so fast that dairy farmers and banana growers abandoned their land (Auld, 1969, 1970; Holm et al.,1991; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It is unpalatable to cattle and toxic to horses, who readily consume it if present.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Acacia mangiumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 241
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: brown salwood, hickory wattle, mangium
Cambodia: acacia sleuk thom
Indonesia: mangge hutan, nak, sabah salwood, tongke hutan
Philippines: maber
Thailand: krathinthepha
Viet Nam: keo tai tuong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines (30–35 m tall) and often with a straight trunk [25–50 (–90) cm in diameter].
Bark: Greenish and smooth in young trees; rough, greyish brown to dark brown, hard, fissured near the base of older trees.
Leaves: Dark green, ‘leaves’ are expanded leaf stalks called phyllodes, straight on one side and slightly curved on the other (25 cm long and 3.5–10 cm wide), 4–5 main longitudinal veins, gland conspicuous at the base of the phyllodes.
Flowers: Numerous tiny white or cream flowers in loose spikes (5–12 cm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature (8–10 cm long and 0.3–0.5 cm wide), initially straight and broad but irregularly coiled when ripe; seeds are black and shiny (3–5 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), attached to the pods by an orange-to-red folded appendage.
 
ORIGIN
Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, fibre, tannins, shade, shelter and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, croplands, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and coastal areas.
 
IMPACTS
In forests in Brunei A. mangium has displaced many native plants and, in particular, heath forest species (Osunkoya et al., 2005). The tree has also invaded fruit and coffee farms and has a negative impact on the germination and growth of two local rice varieties (Ismail and Metali, 2014). It also uses significant amounts of water, more that the natural vegetation that it replaces. By fixing nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Acacia decurrenshot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 226
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: acacia bark, early black wattle, green wattle, Sydney wattle, tan wattle
Indonesia: wartel
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines [5–10 (–15) m tall]; no visible hairs; branches prominently angled with wings or ridges that emanate from the leaf bases.
Bark: Olive-green turning grey, smooth to deeply fissured.
Leaves: Bright green, twice-divided, feathery; leaflets slender (6–15 mm long), a single raised gland occurs at the junction of each pair of leaf branchlets.
Flowers: Bright yellow, rounded clusters arranged into larger, showy, elongated compound clusters.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning dark brown as they mature, elongated, hairless, slightly flattened (2–10 cm long), containing about 11 black seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Southeast Australia
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tannins, pulp, soil conservation, windbreaks, shelter, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, grasslands, savannah, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
The accumulation of dead/rotting foliage forms a thick ground cover which, over time, eliminates the growth and establishment of other vegetation (Ruskin, 1983). When it forms dense thickets along waterways it reduces water flow and can contribute to flooding (Hill et al., 2000) and streambank erosion. It has a significant impact on water runoff, and because it fixes nitrogen, it alters soil nutrient cycling. Its pollen is reported to be allergenic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Acacia auriculiformishot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 234
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: earleaf acacia, Japanese acacia, northern black wattle, tan wattle
Cambodia: acacia sleuk toch, smach tehs
Indonesia: akasia kuning, pohon akasia
Malaysia: akasia kuning, bunga siam, kasia
Philippines: auri
Thailand: kratin-narong
Viet Nam: keo lá tram, tràm bông vàng
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines [8–20 (–35) m tall], trunk 60 cm in diameter, often multi-stemmed with compact spread.
Bark: Grey or brown, sometimes black at the base, smooth in young trees, becoming rough and longitudinally fissured with age. 
Leaves: Greyish-green, ‘leaves’ are flattened leaf stalks called phyllodes, slightly curved (8–20 cm long and 1.0–4.5 cm wide), hairless and thinly textured; 3–7 longitudinal veins running together towards the lower  margin or in the middle near the base, with many fine, crowded secondary veins, and a distinct gland at the base of the phyllodes.
Flowers: Light golden-orange, minute, in spikes (8.5 cm long), fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, initially straight or curved becoming twisted and coiled (6.5 cm long and 1.5 cm wide) containing shiny black seeds (0.4–0.6 cm long and 0.3–0.4 cm wide) encircled by a long red, yellow or orange structure.
 
ORIGIN
Australia and Papua New Guinea.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, pulp, erosion control, land reclamation, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native vegetation and shades out indigenous plant species. In Florida, USA, it threatens rare plant species such as the listed scrub pinweed, Lechea cernua Sm. (Cistaceae), in remnant scrub areas (K. C. Burks, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, pers. obs., in FLEPPC, 2015). In Singapore, it is very persistent in disturbed and secondary forests (Tan, 2011). It is also considered to be allelopathic, inhibiting the germination and growth of agricultural crops tested (Hoque et al., 2003).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Myriophyllum aquaticumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 245
WATERMILFOIL FAMILY
Haloragaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian water milfoil, parrot’s feather, water feather Indonesia: bulu burung, paris
Viet Nam: rong xuong cá, rong co lông chim
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, rooted aquatic plant with terminal, leafy shoots emerging 20–50 cm above the water surface; stems yellowish green (2–5 m long and 5 mm thick), roots forming at the joints.
Leaves: Pale green or bluish green, feather-like, finely divided, elongated or oval with deeply divided margins (30–45 mm long and 15 mm wide), arranged in groups of 4–6 at the tips of the stems.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, solitary in axis of leaves.
Fruits: None
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers or streams.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations exclude native plants and have multiple negative impacts on water transport, fisheries and recreation, and can increase the abundance of mosquitoes. The high tannin content also means that fish do not eat the plant. In California, control costs of this weed over a two-year period were US$ 215,000 (Anderson, 1993). Additional impacts would be similar to those of water hyacinth.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
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