Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Acridotheres tristisTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: house myna, common myna, Calcutta myna, mynah, Indian mynah, Indian myna
 
DESCRIPTION
Indian mynas are 23 to 26 cm long, weigh 82 to 143 g and have a wing-span of 120 to 142 mm (Markula Hannan-Jones & Csurhes 2009). The common myna has a medium to heavy build and a cocoa brown colour (Massam 2001). The head, neck and upper breast of the adult is glossy black, while the undertail coverts, tail tip and the outer feathers are white (Massam 2001). The white feathers can be seen most clearly when the bird is in flight. The bill, legs and feet are bright yellow, while the adult iris is reddish brown to brownish yellow in colour (Massam 2001). Male and female A. tristis are not clearly sexually dimorphic and are thus difficult to identify in the field (Counsilman Nee Jalil and Keng 1994).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam
WORLD: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Islamic Republic Of, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Singapore
WORLD: American Samoa, Australia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Hong Kong, India, Iraq, Israel, Kiribati, Kuwait, Madagascar, Maldives, Mauritius, Mayotte, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Oman, Qatar, Reunion, Russian Federation, Saint Helena, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Tonga, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States, United States Minor Outlying Islands, Vanuatu, Wallis And Futuna
 
PATHWAY
Escape - Botanical garden/zoo/aquaria; Pet/aquarium/terrarium species
Transport - Hitchhikers on ship/boat
Release - Landscape/flora/fauna improvement
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
In Israel, mynas escaped from a private facility of exotic birds in the centre of the Tel Aviv public park. On oceanic islands, invasion pathways appear to be primarily via ships, particularly large ferries (Tearika 2003, D. Wattling Pers. Comm.).The pathway to the Spanish islands has been through pet shops and later escapes from the home cages. Introduced by acclimatisation societies.
 
IMPACTS
The common myna (Acridotheres tristis), also called the Indian myna, is a highly commensal Passerine that lives in close association with humans. It competes with small mammals and bird for nesting hollows and on some islands, such as Hawaii and Fiji, it preys on other birds' eggs and chicks. It presents a threat to indigenous biota, particularly parrots and other birdlife, in Australia and elsewhere.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Acridotheres tristis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Acridotheres+tristis on 01-04-2020.
file icon Achatina fulicaTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: giant African snail, giant African land snail
 
DESCRIPTION
Achatina fulica has a narrow, conical shell, which is twice as long as it is wide and contains 7 to 9 whorls when fully grown. The shell is generally reddish-brown in colour with weak yellowish vertical markings but colouration varies with environmental conditions and diet. A light coffee colour is common. Adults of the species may exceed 20cm in shell length but generally average about 5 to 10cm. The average weight of the snail is approximately 32 grams (Cooling 2005).
 
NATIVE RANGE
WORLD: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, United Republic Of
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
WORLD: American Samoa, Anguilla, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Cote D'ivoire, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mayotte, Micronesia, Federated States Of, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Reunion, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin (French Part), Samoa, Sao Tome And Principe, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Trinidad And Tobago, Tuvalu, United States, United States Minor Outlying Islands, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis And Futuna
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Container/bulk; Contaminant nursery material; Food contaminant; Hitchhikers in or on plane; Machinery/equipment; People and their luggage; Vehicles
Release - Landscape/flora/fauna improvement
Escape - Ornamental purpose; Pet/aquarium/terrarium species
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
There is a huge risk of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica) being spread and introduced into new locations via trade routes. It is frequently moved with agricultural products, equipment, cargo and plant or soil matter. The snail’s ability to store sperm is a distinct advantage and could enable a founding population to form from just one individual. Targeting risk industries such as nurseries, farmers markets, vehicle depots is important to prevent long distance spread of the snail. Achatina fulica may be accidentally associated with commerce. Achatina fulica has been introduced to new locations for ornamental purposes (Thiengo et al. 2007). Achatina fulica may be spread to new locations as a novelty fauna addition.Snails may be inadvertently transported with personal belongings. Achatina fulica has been introduced to new locations as a novelty pet (Thiengo et al. 2007). Achatina fulica may attach itself to vehicles and be spread in this way. Small snails and eggs may be inadvertently transported with agricultural, horticultural, and other commercial products and the containers they are shipped in (Thiengo et al. 2007).Accidental transport with military equipment may be important (Mead 1961, in Thiengo et al. 2007). Much of the later spread of A. fulica was related to Japanese activities in the years leading up to and during World War II (Thiengo et al)..
 
IMPACTS
Achatina fulica is considered one of the worst snail pests of tropic and subtropic regions. While their small size limits the quantity of plant material consumed per animal the aggregated nature of the infestations can lead to severe damage in infested plants (Raut & Barker 2002). The process of naturalisation may ameliorate the impacts of this invasive species.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Achatina fulica. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Achatina+fulica on 02-04-2020.
file icon Acanthogobius flavimanusTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 80
SYSTEM
Freshwater
 
COMMON NAMES
English: spotted goby; Japanese river goby, Oriental goby, yellowfin goby
Viet Nam: Cá Bong hoa; Cá Bong
 
DESCRIPTION
Acanthogobius flavimanus is easily identified due to its large size. Adult yellowfin goby have a large head and elongate body and can grow to 30cm in length. This fish is pale brown with a series of dark saddles and spots. Juveniles have pale yellow ventral and anal fins. All ages possess yellow ventral fins whereas other gobies have clear, white, grey or black ventral fins (Barnham, 1998).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Malaysia; Viet Nam
WORLD: China; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of; Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
WORLD: Australia; United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport - Ship/boat hull fouling
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
It also is hypothesized that introduced gobies arrived as eggs on fouling organisms, such as oysters, growing on ship hulls (Nico and Fuller, 2004).
 
IMPACTS
The introduction of Acanthogobius flavimanus alters fish communities and hastens the decline of native species. In California, introductions of A. flavimanus have been associated with extirpations of an endangered species of fish - the tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) from certain bodies of water. It also competes with native species for food sources (Meng et al. 1994: Lafferty et al. 1999, Nico and Fuller, 2004).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Acanthogobius flavimanus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Acanthogobius+flavimanus on 07-04-2020.
file icon Pterois volitanshot!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 230
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: scorpion volitans, peacock lionfish, Indo-Pacific red lionfish, lionfish
Indonesia: Lepu-penganten
Malaysia: Depu, Depu-belang zebra, Gedempu, Lepu
Philippines: Tandang, Danuy ranuy, Ranuy ranuy
Viet Nam: Cá Mao Tiên
 
DESCRIPTION
Pterois volitans has elongated venomous dorsal fin spines and anal fin spines. It has 13 dorsal spines, 10 to 11 dorsal soft rays, 3 anal spines, 6 to 7 anal soft rays. Coastal populations are generally darker, sometimes almost black in estuaries (FishBase 2006). The membranes of fins are often spotted. The body is white or cream coloured with red to reddish-brown vertical stripes. The vertical stripes alternate from wide to very thin and sometimes merge along the flank to form a V (Schofield and Fuller 2006). The maximum length of an adult is 38cm (FishBase 2006) and the maximum body weight is 1.1kg to 1.2kg (Fishelson 1997). Reports of a 43cm individual have been obtained in its introduced range.
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Viet Nam
World: Australia, China, Christmas Island, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, India
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
WORLD: Atlantic - Western Central, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Coasts Of The Caribbean, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Greater Antilles, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Turks And Caicos Islands, United States, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, U.S., West Indies
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Eggs and larvae of the red lionfish may be transported via ballast water (Whitfield 2002).
 
IMPACTS
Ecosystem change: While few ecological studies have been conducted (but see Albins & Hixon 2008) it is clear that the lionfish’s presence in the Caribbean is a worrying one. Lionfish are highly piscivorous and reduce the recruitment of juvenile fishes, which in turn disrupts marine ecosystem processes and reduces reef biodiversity (Albins and Hixon 2008; Morris et al. 2008).
Reduction in native biodiversity: If their populations are allowed to continue growing unchecked, lionfish have the potential to severely reduce reef biodiversity, with the possible extinction of several species; although it is still too early to be definitive, anecdotal evidence from the Bahamas corroborates this premise (Dell 2009).
Predation: Albins and Hixon (2008) showed that lionfish can drastically reduce recruitment of native fishes on small patch reefs in the Bahamas. They are potentially capable of decimating indigenous reef fish populations in the Caribbean due to their lack of natural predators and voracious appetite (Valdez Mascari & Aguiar 2009).
Competition: Not only do lionfish consume large quantities of juvenile fish (such as grouper and yellow-tail snapper) but they also out-compete native species (such as scamp, gag, and yellowmouth grouper) for food (Morris et al. 2008; Dell 2009). Economic/Livelihoods: In addition, by reducing populations of commercially important species such as grouper (Albins and Hixon 2008) they may as a consequence damage the economy of island communities which are dependent on such fishing industries.
Human health: Lionfish are venomous with their spines containing apocrine-type venom glands (Morris et al. 2008). Lionfish venom has been found to cause cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and cytolytic effects ranging from mild reactions such as swelling to extreme pain and paralysis in upper and lower extremities (Kizer et al. 1985, in Morris et al. 2008). The toxin in lionfish venom contains acetylcholine and a neurotoxin that affects neuromuscular transmission (Cohen and Olek 1989, in Morris et al. 2008). Lionfish spines can prove dangerous to divers, snorkelers and aquarium enthusiasts (Morris et al. 2008; Schofield 2009). Stings are not fatal, but intensely painful and often requiring hospitalisation (Morris et al. 2008). Lionfish stings can be treated by heating the afflicted part in hot water (to 45° C) for 30 to 90 minutes and applying corticoids to the area (FishBase 2006); medical attention should be sought immediately (Cayman Islands Government Undated).
 
Source: Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Pterois volitans. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1050 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Mytilopsis salleihot!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 242
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: false mussel, Caribbean black-striped mussel, Caribbean black-striped false mussel, Santo Domingo false mussel, black striped mussel
 
DESCRIPTION
Mytilopsis sallei is a small, fingernail sized mussel, growing to an average size of 25mm, although sizes range from lengths of 8-25mm, with a maximum width of 9.68mm and a maximum height of 12.58mm. It has a varied shell colouration, from black through to a light colour, with some small individuals having a light and dark zig-zag pattern. The right valve overlaps the left valve, and is slightly larger. M. sallei settles in clusters, and is rarely seen as a single individual (NIMPIS, 2002).
 
NATIVE RANGE
World: Atlantic - Western Central, Guatemala, United States, West Indies
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
WORLD: Australia, Hongkong, Japan, Fiji, India, Mexico, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat hull fouling
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hull fouling is often an important factor in incursions, such as the introduction of M. sallei to Darwin Harbour, Australia in the 1990s (Hutchings et al. 2002).Spread via ballast water appears less likely because of the short duration of the larval stage (CSIRO, 2001).
 
IMPACTS
Mytilopsis sallei is an extremely prolific and fecund species, being ecologically similar to its relation the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. It has been responsible for massive fouling on wharves and marinas, seawater systems (pumping stations, vessel ballast and cooling systems) and marine farms. In preferred habitats, it forms dense monospecific groups that exclude most other species, leading to a substantial reduction in biodiversity in infected areas (NIMPIS, 2002; CSIRO, 2001).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Mytilopsis sallei. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1047 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
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