Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Achatina fulicaTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: giant African snail, giant African land snail
 
DESCRIPTION
Achatina fulica has a narrow, conical shell, which is twice as long as it is wide and contains 7 to 9 whorls when fully grown. The shell is generally reddish-brown in colour with weak yellowish vertical markings but colouration varies with environmental conditions and diet. A light coffee colour is common. Adults of the species may exceed 20cm in shell length but generally average about 5 to 10cm. The average weight of the snail is approximately 32 grams (Cooling 2005).
 
NATIVE RANGE
WORLD: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, United Republic Of
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
WORLD: American Samoa, Anguilla, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Cote D'ivoire, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mayotte, Micronesia, Federated States Of, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Reunion, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin (French Part), Samoa, Sao Tome And Principe, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Trinidad And Tobago, Tuvalu, United States, United States Minor Outlying Islands, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis And Futuna
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Container/bulk; Contaminant nursery material; Food contaminant; Hitchhikers in or on plane; Machinery/equipment; People and their luggage; Vehicles
Release - Landscape/flora/fauna improvement
Escape - Ornamental purpose; Pet/aquarium/terrarium species
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
There is a huge risk of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica) being spread and introduced into new locations via trade routes. It is frequently moved with agricultural products, equipment, cargo and plant or soil matter. The snail’s ability to store sperm is a distinct advantage and could enable a founding population to form from just one individual. Targeting risk industries such as nurseries, farmers markets, vehicle depots is important to prevent long distance spread of the snail. Achatina fulica may be accidentally associated with commerce. Achatina fulica has been introduced to new locations for ornamental purposes (Thiengo et al. 2007). Achatina fulica may be spread to new locations as a novelty fauna addition.Snails may be inadvertently transported with personal belongings. Achatina fulica has been introduced to new locations as a novelty pet (Thiengo et al. 2007). Achatina fulica may attach itself to vehicles and be spread in this way. Small snails and eggs may be inadvertently transported with agricultural, horticultural, and other commercial products and the containers they are shipped in (Thiengo et al. 2007).Accidental transport with military equipment may be important (Mead 1961, in Thiengo et al. 2007). Much of the later spread of A. fulica was related to Japanese activities in the years leading up to and during World War II (Thiengo et al)..
 
IMPACTS
Achatina fulica is considered one of the worst snail pests of tropic and subtropic regions. While their small size limits the quantity of plant material consumed per animal the aggregated nature of the infestations can lead to severe damage in infested plants (Raut & Barker 2002). The process of naturalisation may ameliorate the impacts of this invasive species.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Achatina fulica. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Achatina+fulica on 02-04-2020.
file icon Acridotheres tristisTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: house myna, common myna, Calcutta myna, mynah, Indian mynah, Indian myna
 
DESCRIPTION
Indian mynas are 23 to 26 cm long, weigh 82 to 143 g and have a wing-span of 120 to 142 mm (Markula Hannan-Jones & Csurhes 2009). The common myna has a medium to heavy build and a cocoa brown colour (Massam 2001). The head, neck and upper breast of the adult is glossy black, while the undertail coverts, tail tip and the outer feathers are white (Massam 2001). The white feathers can be seen most clearly when the bird is in flight. The bill, legs and feet are bright yellow, while the adult iris is reddish brown to brownish yellow in colour (Massam 2001). Male and female A. tristis are not clearly sexually dimorphic and are thus difficult to identify in the field (Counsilman Nee Jalil and Keng 1994).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam
WORLD: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Islamic Republic Of, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Singapore
WORLD: American Samoa, Australia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Hong Kong, India, Iraq, Israel, Kiribati, Kuwait, Madagascar, Maldives, Mauritius, Mayotte, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Oman, Qatar, Reunion, Russian Federation, Saint Helena, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Tonga, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States, United States Minor Outlying Islands, Vanuatu, Wallis And Futuna
 
PATHWAY
Escape - Botanical garden/zoo/aquaria; Pet/aquarium/terrarium species
Transport - Hitchhikers on ship/boat
Release - Landscape/flora/fauna improvement
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
In Israel, mynas escaped from a private facility of exotic birds in the centre of the Tel Aviv public park. On oceanic islands, invasion pathways appear to be primarily via ships, particularly large ferries (Tearika 2003, D. Wattling Pers. Comm.).The pathway to the Spanish islands has been through pet shops and later escapes from the home cages. Introduced by acclimatisation societies.
 
IMPACTS
The common myna (Acridotheres tristis), also called the Indian myna, is a highly commensal Passerine that lives in close association with humans. It competes with small mammals and bird for nesting hollows and on some islands, such as Hawaii and Fiji, it preys on other birds' eggs and chicks. It presents a threat to indigenous biota, particularly parrots and other birdlife, in Australia and elsewhere.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Acridotheres tristis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Acridotheres+tristis on 01-04-2020.
file icon Aulacaspis yasumatsuiTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 74
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: snow scale, Thai scale
 
DESCRIPTION
All adult female Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)) have a waxy outer covering for the protection of themselves and their eggs (the scale) (Weissling et al. 1999). The scale of mature females of A. yasumatsui are: white, 1.2-1.6mm long and highly variable in form. They tend to have a pyriform shape with the exuviae at one end, but are often irregularly circular, conforming with leaf veins, adjacent scales and other objects. The ventral scale is extremely thin to incomplete. The scale of the juvenile male is similar to those of other species of Diaspididae, being 0.5-0.6mm long, white and tricarinate, with exuviae at the cephalic end. Scales of males are nearly always more numerous than those of females (Howard et al. 1999). Adult males are orange-brown, and are similar in appearance to tiny flying midges, with one pair of wings and well-developed legs and antennae (Heu et al. 2003). Adult females are also orange in colour (Weissling et al. 1999).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Thailand
WORLD: China
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
WORLD: Cayman Islands; Cote D'ivoire; France; Guam; Hong Kong; New Zealand; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Puerto Rico; Taiwan; United States; Virgin Islands, U.S.
 
PATHWAY
Transport - Parasites on plants
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)) can be transported to new locations by the import of infested cycad plants. There is high potential for CAS to spread in this manner as one or more fecund females hidden in the cycad can easily escape detection (EPPO, 2005).
 
IMPACTS
Both the citrus and Asian longhorn beetles originate from Eastern Asia where they seriously damage forest and agricultural plant hosts; both pose a potential economic and ecological threat to urban and natural environments where they are introduced in North America and Europe.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Aulacaspis yasumatsui. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Aulacaspis+yasumatsui on 07-04-2020.
file icon Anas platyrhynchosTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 78
SYSTEM
Freshwater; Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mallard
 
DESCRIPTION
Anas platyrhynchos is a medium to large dabbling duck ranging from about 50-60 cm in length and 1-1.3 kg. It is strongly sexually dimorphic. Breeding males bear a distinctive green head, narrow white neck-ring, brown breast, brownish-gray dorsal feathers, pale gray sides and belly, black rump and under tail coverts, white outer tail, and strongly recurved black central tail feathers. Their wings are a pale gray with a distinct iridescent blue upperside and secondaries bordered with white leading and trailing edges, white under-wing coverts, and pale gray undersides. Bills are yellow to olive and legs and feet are orange to red. Females have a broken streaky pattern of buff, white, gray, to black on brown. They have white outer tail feathers and under tail coverts, a white belly, and a prominent dark eyeline. Females have similar wings to males including the distinct blue markings. Their bills are gray-black to orange and legs and feet orange to red. Non-breeding male and juvenile plummages similar to female with males bearing a dark green head and both being darker (Drilling et al., 2002; Sibley, 2003).
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Viet Nam
WORLD: Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Aruba; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bosnia And Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Guam; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic Of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of; Korea, Republic Of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libyan; Arab Jamahiriya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of; Malta; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova, Republic Of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Nepal; Netherlands; Netherlands Antilles; Nicaragua; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre And Miquelon; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan; Tajikistan; Trinidad And Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks And Caicos Islands; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uzbekistan; Yemen
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam; Thailand
WORLD: Antigua And Barbuda; Australia; Cayman Islands; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Gambia; Gibraltar; Guadeloupe; Jamaica; Kiribati; Mali; Marshall; Islands; Martinique; Micronesia, Federated States Of; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Saint Vincent And The Grenadines; Senegal; Seychelles; South Africa; Svalbard And Jan Mayen; United States; Vanuatu; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Zambia
 
PATHWAY
Escape - Farmed animals; Ornamental purpose
Release - Hunting in the wild
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Farming: Mallard domestic breeds or barnyard ducks are used worldwide for meat (Huang et al., 2007). Escapes to the wild are frequent.Anas platyrhynchos is an extremely popular game bird and has been introduced to new locations for that reason (Uyeharaet al., 2007).Anas platyrhynchos has been introduced to new locations to stock ponds (Uyehara et al, 2007).
 
IMPACTS
Introductions and range expansions of A. platyrhynchos for game purposes pose a threat of competition and hybridization to native waterfowl. Also, recent studies hold the mallard as a likely vector for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1).
 
Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Anas platyrhynchos. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Anas+platyrhynchos on 07-04-2020.
file icon Anoplophora chinensisTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 81
SYSTEM
Terrestrial
 
COMMON NAMES
English: citrus long-horned beetle
 
DESCRIPTION
The eggs are 5.5 millimeters by 1.7 millimeters, elongate, sub-cylindrical, smooth-surfaced, and tapering at both ends; initially creamy white, they turn yellowish-brown when ready to hatch (Lieu 1945, in Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005). Larvae are typical round-headed woodborers. The legless grubs are 5 millimeters long at the time of hatching and grow to a size of 52 millimeters. They are a creamy white with some yellow/amber chitinzed patterns on the prothorax and a brown mark on the front side (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005; MAF 2005). The pupa is 27 to 38 millimeters long; it has elytra that only partially covers the membranous hind wings and curves around to the ventral surface of the body (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005). The adult citrus longhorn has a typical cerambycid beetle body shape. Females are larger than males; the male is 25 millimeters long and the female is 35 millimeters long. The beetle is glossy black to blue-black (following emergence from the tree) and finely punctuated (bearing tiny dots or points) with a series of irregular white hair spots on the elytra (EPPO Undated; Walker 2008). (The elytra is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles). The elytra of females is parallel whereas the elytra of males is distally tapered (Walker 2008). The antennae have 11 segments, the joints of the antennae are black with a blue-grey base; this gives them a striped appearance. The antennae are longer than the body (1.7 to 2 times the body-length in males and 1.2 times the body-length in females) (Walker 2008). The pronotum has a prominent pointed process on both sides. (The pronotum is the upper surface of the prothorax; the shape of the pronotum is often important in identification of beetles)
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Myanmar; Viet Nam
WORLD: China; Hong Kong; Japan; Macao
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
WORLD: France; Germany; Italy; Netherlands; United Kingdom; United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport - Container/bulk; Contaminant nursery material; Organic packing material; Timber trade; Transportation of habitat material
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
The insect could be transported in wood products including logs, lumber, wooden packing materials, pallets or dunnage (NAFC 2001).High risk goods associated with the transfer of insect pests include consignments of stones, cast iron or electronic goods imported from Asia (Krehan 2002).International trade in nursery stock is considered a high risk pathway for the spread of plant pests (Forest Research Institute 2007). Regulated plants in the European Community under recent (2008) emergency directives include: Acer spp., Aesculus hippocastanum, Alnus spp., Betula spp., Carpinus spp., Citrus spp., Corylus spp., Cotoneaster spp., Fagus spp., Lagerstroemia spp., Malus spp., Platanus spp., Populus spp., Prunus spp., Pyrus spp., Salix spp., and Ulmus spp. All consignments carrying these plant species are high-risk in terms of their potential for carrying A. chinensis individuals or infestations (Commission Of The European Communities 2008).The larvae may move in felled timber and in nursery stock. In bonsai, they are more often found in field-collected plants than those grown under supervised nursery conditions (NPPO 2008).The insect could be transported in wood products including logs, lumber, wooden packing materials, pallets or dunnage (NAFC 2001). IMPACTS Both the citrus and Asian longhorn beetles originate from Eastern Asia where they seriously damage forest and agricultural plant hosts; both pose a potential economic and ecological threat to urban and natural environments where they are introduced in North America and Europe.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Anoplophora chinensis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Anoplophora+chinensis on 07-04-2020.
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