Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Swietenia macrophyllahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1255
English: big-leaved mahogany, broad-leaved mahogany, Honduras mahogany
Cambodia: kroab baek
Indonesia: mahoni
Malaysia: cheria mahogany
Thailand: mahokkani-bailek
Viet Nam: cây nhac ngua
Evergreen tropical tree species (up to 40–60 m high), trunk is straight, cylindrical, 3–4 m in circumference, buttresses up to 5 m high, crown of young trees is narrow, but old trees have a broad, dense and highly branched crown.
Bark: Brownish-grey to reddish-brown, deeply furrowed, scaly, inner bark red-brown or pinkish red, flaking off in small patches.
Leaves: Green, once-divided [12–45 (–60) cm long], 3–6 pairs of sword- or egg-shaped leaflets (5–12 cm long and 2–5 cm wide), margins entire gradually tapering to a sharp point.
Flowers: Small (0.5–1 cm long and 8 mm across), in clusters (10–20 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), light grey to brown, egg-shaped (12–39 cm long and 7–12 cm wide) containing 20–70 winged seeds (7–12 cm long and 2–2.5 cm wide).
Belize, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, shade and ornament.
Disturbed land, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
Mahogany readily invades secondary forests and forest edges and gaps preventing native species regeneration. In the lowlands of Mount Makiling, Philippines, mahogany had penetrated 250 m into secondary forests in 70 years (Baguinon, 2011). Dominance is facilitated by the fact that mahogany may also be allelopathic (Thinley, 2002). Extracts from the leaves of mahogany were shown to retard the growth of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) seedlings in the Philippines (Baguinon et al., 2003). Diversity of native plants in general was also considerably reduced under or near S. macrophylla stands. Invasive mahogany species together with other introduced plants are preventing the regeneration of dipterocarp and nondipterocarp forests in parts of Asia.
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from on 24 October 2018


file icon Passiflora foetidahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1427
English: foetid passion flower, passion flower, stinking passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Cambodia: voer saw maw
Indonesia: buah tikus, ceplukan blunsun, katceprek, katjeprek, lemanas, permot, permot rajutan, rambaton blunsun
Lao PDR: nya ham ho
Malaysia: pokok lang bulu, timun dendang
Myanmar: chin-gya-thee-pin, su-ka
Philippines: belon-belon, kurunggut, lupok-lupok, masaflora, melon meleonan, taungan, pasionariang-mabaho, prutas taungan
Thailand: ka thok rok
Viet Nam: chùm bao, nhãn long
Evergreen, tendril climber; stems sometimes angular (up to 15 m high); tendril at the base of each leaf stalk together with a stipule (threadlike appendage) covered in sticky glands; stems have an unpleasant odour.
Leaves: Glossy dark-green above, simple, deeply three-lobed, but sometimes entire or five-lobed (3–10.5 cm long and 3–10 cm wide), margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth; leaves held alternately on stems and borne on stalks (1–6 cm long).
Flowers: White or purplish (3–5 cm across), borne singly on stalks (2–4.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), greenishyellow turning yellow/orange as it matures, round, dry, large (1.5–4 cm long), hairless, partially enclosed by the sticky bracts.
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
Medicine, edible fruit, ground cover and ornament.
Roadsides, disturbed areas, crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, savannah and riparian zones.
In parts of Malaysia it is a serious weed of maize and rubber. It also impacts negatively on coconut production in the Pacific, on maize, sugarcane and cotton in Thailand, on oil palm in Indonesia, on taro in Samoa, and on various other crops in Sarawak (Holm et al., 1997). It is an alternative host for a number of diseases which affect cultivated passion fruit.
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from on 23 October 2018
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