Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Carassius auratushot!Tooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 190
SYSTEM
Freshwater
 
COMMON NAMES
English: goldfish
Malaysia: edible goldfish, ikan mas
Philippines: tawes
 
DESCRIPTION
A small to moderately-sized fish with a deep body and rounded cross-section. Large head and eyes with a small mouth and a forked tail. Scales are large and the single dorsal fin has 3-4 stout spines at the leading edge. Colour ranges from olive-bronze to deep golden along dorsal surface, fading to silvery-white along the belly (McDowall, 2000). May grow up to 41cm in length, 2kg in weight and live for 30 years in captivity (FishBase, 2004).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar
WORLD: China; Hong Kong; Japan; Macao
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
WORLD: Afghanistan; Albania; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bolivia; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic Of; Israel; Italy; Kazakhstan; Korea, Republic Of; Latvia; Lithuania; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic Of; Namibia; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Norway; Pakistan; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Reunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Serbia And Montenegro; Slovakia; South Africa; Spain; Taiwan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Zimbabwe
 
PATHWAY
Escape - Ornamental purpose; Pet/aquarium/terrarium species
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Often introduced to outdoor ponds as an ornamental fish. Introduced worldwide as aquarium fish.
 
IMPACTS
The passage of cyanobacteria through the goldfish intestine stimulates cyanobacterial growth, which may result in algal blooms occurring. The bottom-sucking feeding methods of goldfish can also contribute towards algal blooms by re-suspending nutrients, which makes them available to algae (Morgan & Beatty, 2004). Goldfish have also been known to prey upon the eggs, larvae and adult of native fishes (Morgan & Beatty, 2004), as well as increasing water turbidity and depleting aquatic vegetation (Richardson et al., 1995).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Carassius auratus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Carassius+auratus on 07-04-2020.
file icon Channa argushot!Tooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 200
SYSTEM
Freshwater
 
COMMON NAMES
English: northern snakehead; amur snakehead; eastern snakehead; ocellated snakehead
 
DESCRIPTION
The body of snakeheads is torpedo-shaped, which tapers towards the tail. They have a single, long dorsal fin, a long anal fin, and a small head with a large mouth (Cudmore & Mandrak 2006). Northern snakeheads are cylindrical fish that can grow up to 85 centimeters in length (Okada 1960, in Courtenay and Williams, 2004) however, in Russia there have been reports of captured specimens reaching 1.5 meters total length (Courtenay and Williams 2004). As the name implies, the scaled head of the fish looks like a snake; they have a large mouth with sharp teeth, a truncated, not rounded tail and are easily identified by dark irregular blotches along their sides (Sea Grant Pennsylvania 2007) on a background of golden tan to pale brown. This fish is capable of darkening its background colors to the point of almost obscuring the blotches. There is a dark stripe from just behind the eye to the upper edge of the operculum with another dark stripe below from behind the orbit extending to the lower quadrant of the operculum. Coloration of juveniles is virtually the same as in adults, a characteristic atypical for many snakehead species.
 
NATIVE RANGE
WORLD: China; Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of; Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Cambodia; Thailand; Viet Nam
WORLD: Canada; Czech Republic; Hong Kong; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Republic Of; Nigeria; Slovakia; Turkmenistan; United States; Uzbekistan
 
PATHWAY
Release - Fishery in the wild; Release in nature for use
Escape - Live food and live baits; Pet/aquarium/terrarium species
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
The northern snakehead is a popular aquarium fish in Europe and Japan, however, because of their highly predacious nature snakeheads have not had a large following of interested hobbyists in the USA (Courtenay & Williams 2004). Some introductions are believed to be the result of intentional release of aquarium fish as they are very expensive to feed and soon outgrow their aquaria (Courtenay & Williams 2004). Many introductions of the northern snakehead are believed to be the result of intentional release of fish obtained from the live food trade (Courtenay & Williams 2004). The northern snakehead has been a market leader and is cultured in China and Korea (Courtenay & Williams 2004). This species has been exported to other nations, including Canada and the United States where it has been sold alive in certain ethnic markets and restaurants (Courtenay & Williams 2004).The northern snakehead is introduced to many locations for culture as a sport fish (Courtenay & Williams 2004).Many introductions of the northern snakehead are believed to be the result of intentional release of fish obtained from the live food trade (Courtenay & Williams 2004). The northern snakehead has been a market leader and is cultured in China and Korea (Courtenay & Williams 2004). This species has been exported to other nations, including Canada and the United States where it has been sold alive in certain ethnic markets and restaurants (Courtenay & Williams 2004). IMPACTS The cold temperate northern snakehead (Channa argus) is found in areas in Russia, China and Korea. It is known for its voracious predation of other fish species, ability to withstand freezing and ability to tolerate lack of water for up to four days.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Channa argus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Channa+argus on 07-04-2020.
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