Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Syngonium podophyllumhot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1083
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: arrowhead vine, African evergreen, goosefoot plant, American evergreen
Indonesia: Keladi-keladian
Philippines: kamay-Kastila
Viet Nam: Tróc bac, trau bà trang
 
DESCRIPTION
Rampant evergreen climber or creeping plant reaching 5-10 m when climbing over trees; young stems bluish-green, hairless, smooth, fleshy, contain milky sap, roots develop at stem joints; older stems pale brown, woody (1.5-2.5 cm thick) with aerial roots.
Leaves: Vary in colour with lower leaves dark green or with silverywhite veins and upper leaves light or dark green with no markings, all hairless with margins entire, paler undersides and on stalks (15-60 cm long) which are partly grooved; lower leaves are heart-shaped or shaped like an arrow-head (7-14 cm long) with pointed tips; intermediate leaves larger with spreading lobes; upper leaves (12-38 cm long and 16-17 cm wide) divided into three segments or leaflets.
Flowers: Whitish spikes (4-11) (5-9 cm long and 7-15 mm wide) partially enclosed in a white to greenish modified leaf (9-11 cm long), held in upper leaf forks on stalks (up to 13 cm long).
Fruits: Red to reddish-orange merging into one larger fruit, turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (3.5-7 cm long and 1.5-3.5 cm wide), usually hidden.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Climbs up into shrubs and tree shading out native vegetation and in so doing reducing native plant diversity and abundance. It has the ability to invade intact forests covering the forest floor and climbing into large and well established native trees, often causing canopy collapse due to the weight of the large stems (Space and Flynn, 2000; (Morgan et al., 2004). In Florida it is displacing a host of native plants including rare ferns (Possley, 2004). In Belize, it has invaded citrus orchards competing with trees for water and nutrients (Tzul, undated). The thick mats also harbour snakes endangering labourers working in orchards (Tzul, undated). S. podophyllum may also cause mild to severe poisoning if ingested (Morgan et al., 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Antigonon leptopushot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 1129
KNOTWEED FAMILY
Polygonaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bride’s tears, chain of love, coral bells, coral creeper, love vine
Indonesia: bunga air mata pengantin
Malaysia: bunga berteh, bunga bonet
Philippines: cadena de amor, kantutay
Thailand: phuang-chomphuu
Viet Nam: hoa ti-gôn
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen climber or vine with tendrils, angular stems [6–10 (–15 m long]; hairless or with young shoots covered in brownish or reddish hairs; older stems brown and woody near base; underground tubers.
Leaves: Light green on upper surface, pale green below, membranous, conspicuous network of veins, heart-shaped or triangular (2.5–15 cm long and 2–10 cm wide), margins entire, wavy or bluntly toothed with pointed tips, leaf stalks 1–5 cm long, slightly winged.
Flowers: Bright pink, sometimes white, in clusters (4–20 cm long) at the tips of branches, tips of clusters ending in a short tendril. Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown, cone-shaped or three-angled (8–12 mm long and 4–7 mm wide), covered in the papery remains of the flower ‘petals.’
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and coastal sand dunes.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native trees, out-competes understorey plants and alters fire regimes (Langeland et al., 2008; USDA-NRCS, 2011). On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), it is ‘rampant on sea and inland cliffs and in previously mined areas where it may be hampering the annual migration of crabs and interfering with natural regeneration’ (Swarbrick and Hart, 2000). It has been estimated to cover 20% of the island of Saint Eustatius (Caribbean) (Ernst and Ketner, 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Cenchrus echinatushot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1159
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffel grass, bur grass, field sandbur, hedgehog grass, Mossman river grass
Indonesia: rumput daratan
Philippines: agingay, madiyong-madiyong, sagisi, rukut-dukut
Thailand: yaa son krachap, ya-bung
Viet Nam: co echin
 
DESCRIPTION
Short-lived, tufted grass with often branched stems (culms) (25–60 cm tall), hairless nodes, roots occasionally produced at the lowest joints.
Leaves: Green, sheath (tubular structure that clasps stem) partially encloses stem, usually hairless but sometimes with a few hairs, reddish or purplish on young plants and lower stems; blades are linear (5–25 cm long and 3–12 mm wide), narrowing to a point, some hairs along margins.
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (3–10 cm long and 1–1.3 cm wide).
Fruits: Burr-like structures in inflorescence (4–10 mm long), each with many sharp spines (2–5 mm long), reddish or purplish-green when young turning straw-coloured or dark brown; ‘burs’ contain seeds which are brown and have a flattened tip.
 
ORIGIN
Mexico and southern USA
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, fallow land, crops, managed pasture, gardens, grassland and sandy soils along the coast.
 
IMPACTS
Can readily establish large monocultures to the detriment of native plant species and the organisms that depend on them. On Laysan Island, Hawaii, it displaced the native bunchgrass, Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich) Steud., and in so doing, reduced important breeding sites for two endemic, endangered land birds, the Laysan finch [Telespiza cantans (Wilson)], and the Laysan duck [Anas laysanensis Rothschild], as well as several species of indigenous seabirds and terrestrial arthropods (Flint and Rehkemper, 2002). The burs are apparently also dangerous for hatchlings of seabirds on the Northwestern Islands (Motooka et al., 2003). Burs in animal feed can also reduce their acceptability and palatability. Buffel grass is also a serious agricultural weed of orchards, vineyards, coffee, vegetables, bananas and coconuts. Crops competing for nutrients with C. echinatus typically have smaller leaf areas and lower growth rates and yields (Hammerton, 1981; Everaarts, 1993; Ramos and Pitelli, 1994). C. echinatus is also an alternative host for maize streak monogeminivirus and sugarcane streak monogeminivirus (Brunt et al., 1996).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Panicum repenshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1182
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bullet grass, couch panicum, creeping panic grass, quack grass, torpedograss
Cambodia: smau phluk
Indonesia: rumput lampuyangan
Philippines: luya-luyahan, pagudpel, parayparay
Viet Nam: co gung, co cua gà, co ong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass with culms (flowering stem) (1 m in height) arising from long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips.
Leaves: Green, linear, flat or folded (7–25 cm long and 2–8 mm wide) with a whitish, waxy covering; leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) hairless or hairy, with hairs usually restricted to the upper margins; ligule (thin outgrowth at junction of the leaf and leaf stalk) is membranous with short hairs.
Flowers: Branched, open inflorescences (7–22 cm long) with 1–3 branchlets per node.
 
ORIGIN
Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Greece and Italy in Europe.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Forage
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, lowlands, floodplains, wetlands, gullies,lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native vegetation, particularly in or near shallow waters. It is also a serious weed in a wide range of perennial crops including sugarcane in Taiwan and Hawaii; pineapple in West Africa; tea in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka; various orchard crops in Thailand; rubber, coconut and oil palm in Malaysia; and rice in Indonesia and Sri Lanka (Holm et al., 1977). In Taiwan, rhizome density can reach 15 tons per hectare, while a density of 5 tons per hectare can result in a 50% reduction in sugarcane yield (Peng and Sze, 1974). P. repens may act as an alternative host to the rice leafhopper (Holm et al., 1977).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Mikania micranthahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1191
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American rope, bitter vine, Chinese creeper, climbing hemp vine, mile-a-minute weed
Cambodia: voer tun trean khaet
Indonesia: caputuheun, mikania, sembung rambat
Malaysia: cheroma, ulam tikus
Viet Nam: cây cúc leo
 
DESCRIPTION
A branched, scrambling, slender-stemmed, fast-growing, evergreen vine; stem slightly ribbed lengthwise, hairless or slightly hairy.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, heart-shaped or triangular with a pointed tip and a broad base (4–13cm long and 2–9 cm wide), 3–5 veined from base, margins are coarsely toothed; leaves held in opposite pairs along the stems with leaf stalks 2–8 cm long.
Flowers: Fluffy white to greenish-white, often with purple tinge (3–6 mm long), in dense clusters in the forks of the leaves or at the ends of the branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, linear to elongated with almost parallel sides, five-angled (1.2–2 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba,Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St. Lucia, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, riversides and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly smothers native plants and crops. It is considered to be one of the worst weeds of plantation crops in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In Southeast Asia, it affects yields of cocoa, coconut, orchards, rubber, oil palm, vegetables and rice (Waterhouse, 1993). The annual cost of controlling M. micrantha was estimated at US $9.8 million for rubber, oil palm and cocoa crops in Malaysia (Teoh et al., 1985). In Samoa, it has led to the abandonement of coconut plantations where it is also known tohave killed large breadfruit trees. In Papua New Guinea, about 45% of all respondents estimated that M. micrantha causes yield losses in excess of 30% (Day et al., 2012). In summer, the dried aerial parts are also a fire hazard allowiing fires to penetrate deeper into forests and other natural vegetation.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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