Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Salvinia molestahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 969
WATERMOSS FAMILY
Salviniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: aquarium water-moss, Australian azolla, butterfly fern, giant salvinia, kariba-weed, salvinia, velvet weed
Cambodia: chark toch
Indonesia: kiambang
Thailand: chawk hunu
Viet Nam: bèo ong lon
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, free-floating fern, branching horizontal stems (up to 6–25 cm long and 1.2 cm thick), submerged feathery roots.
‘Leaves’: Green or yellowish-green fronds, in pairs, oval (2–6 cm long and 10–15 mm wide); almost impossible to wet due to a covering of fine egg-beater-shaped hairs (1–3 mm long) on upper surface; undersides covered in matted brown hairs.
Flowers: None
Fruits: None, reproduces from detached fragments.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Thick mats reduce light penetration into water bodies, impacting negatively on submerged aquatic plants. Infestations also often out-compete rooted and submerged native plants and in so doing, reduce plant diversity (Sculthorpe, 1985). Benthic fauna is usually also reduced (Coates, 1982), while fish can also be impacted by changes in oxygen concentrations as S. molesta plants die and rot within water bodies (Sculthorpe, 1985). It is also a pest of rice paddies in India, where it competes for water, nutrients and space, resulting in poor crop production (Anonymous, 1987). Dense mats also provide habitats for many human disease vectors such as Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, which have been identified as vectors of West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and rural elephantiasis (Pancho and Soerjani, 1978; Chow et al., 1955; Ramachandran, 1960; Lounibos et al., 1990). Mats also harbour snails that transmit schistosomiasis (Holm et al., 1977). Infestations also impact negatively on water transport and fishing. For example, entire villages, dependent on water transport were abandoned along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea when infestations of S. molesta limited access to healthcare, education and food (Gewertz, 1983).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Limnocharis flavahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1006
WATER POPPY FAMILY
Limnocharitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bur head, limnocharis, sawah lettuce, velvetleaf, yellow burrhead
Cambodia: trakiet paong
Indonesia: bangeng, eceng, enceng, berek, gunda, genjer
Lao PDR: kaanz choong
Malaysia: jinjir, paku rawan
Thailand: bon cheen, bonchin, nangkwak, talapatrusi, taalapat ruesee
Viet Nam: cây cù nèo, kèo nèo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen clump-forming, aquatic, herbaceous, rooted to the ground and emerges above the water surface (20–120 cm tall); large fleshy leaves borne in clusters along a short thick erect stem (about 3 cm long and 3 cm wide), contains a milky sap.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, triangular to rounded (5–30 cm long and 4–25 cm wide), margins entire or wavy, borne on long three-angled (triangular) stalks (5–90 cm long).
Flowers: Yellow, in clusters containing 2–15 flowers at the top of three-angled stalks (20–120 cm long).
Fruits: Rounded ‘capsules’ (15–20 mm across), that split up into several floating segments when mature.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, water courses, floodplains, swamps, wetlands and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Dominates invaded water bodies displacing other aquatic plant and animal species. It has become a serious weed in rice paddies and chokes irrigation and drainage canals (Waterhouse, 2003) facilitating siltation and reducing water discharge capacity (Kotalawala, 1976). In some cases, infestations are so severe leading to the abandonment of rice fields. Invaded areas also provide ideal breeding grounds for disease vectors such as mosquitoes, contributing to the spread of diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever (Abhilash et al., 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Spathodea campanulatahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1021
JACARANDA FAMILY
Bignoniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: fireball, flame tree, fountain tree, Nandi flame, Nile flame, tulip tree
Cambodia: angkie dei chmool
Indonesia: pohon hujan
Viet Nam: cây hoa tuylip châu phi
 
DESCRIPTION
Large, upright tree [10–15 (–35) m tall] with trunk up to 170 cm in diameter with a dense wide crown; younger branches are almost hairless or have a sparse covering of short hairs, older branches thick with small white-coloured corky spots; shoots, buds and branchlets covered in yellow-brown hairs, slightly buttressed; sheds leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Pale, grey-brown, smooth, rough with age.
Leaves: Green, yellow-brown soft hairs on underside, large, oncedivided (50 cm long) with (7–) 11–15 (–17) broadly oval or eggshaped leaflets with base rounded and gradually tapering towards the end (15 cm long and 7.5 cm wide), margins entire, 2–3 glands at base of each leaflet, leaves oppositely arranged on stalks that are up to 6 cm long.
Flowers: Orange, showy, tulip-shaped, in dense clusters (8–10 cm long) on long stalks (10 cm long) at the end of branches, individual flower stalks short and covered in brownish hairs; there is a yellow-flowering variety.
Fruits: Pod-like (several-seeded dry fruit that splits open at maturity), green changing to brown as they mature, elongated (17–30 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo,Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Togo.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, carving, medicine, bee forage, erosion control, mulch, windbreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, forest edges/gaps and riparian areas.
 
IMPACTS
Native plants are displaced by the shading effect of the large leaves, resulting in reduced biodiversity under tree canopies (Weber, 2003). In surveys in Fiji, respondents claimed that the African tulip tree competes with crops, reduces the amount of land available for grazing livestock and leads to the loss of more desirable trees that are used for medicinal purposes and/or firewood (Brown and Daigneault, 2014). It is a weed of coffee plantations in Cuba, reducing yields (Herrera-Isla et al., 2002).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Merremia peltatahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1062
MORNING GLORY FAMILY
Convolvulaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: merremia
Indonesia: mantangan
Malaysia: akar sambaing
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen robust vine or climber, with large subterranean tubers; stems smooth (up to 30 m high) emitting a milky latex when damaged.
Leaves: Green, hairless above, purple veins below with scattered hairs, simple, almost round but abruptly tapering to a sharp point (7.5–30 cm long and 7–20 cm wide), held alternately on stems, leaf stalk attached to the underside of the leaf blade instead of at its base or margin (3–24 cm long).
Flowers: Usually white, funnel-shaped, large (5–6 cm wide), in clusters on stalks (15–30 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) (15 mm long), splitting into many valves; seeds brown.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain but assumed to be native to Pemba, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, northern Australia and eastwards into Polynesia to the Society Islands. Different biotype may be invasive in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Indonesia.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, land restoration and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps and woodland edges/gaps.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation to the detriment of plant and animal life. In Vanuatu, it is considered to be one of the most important weeds of plantation forestry and is one of two major specie sthreatening natural regeneration in logged or disturbed areas (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In Indonesia, it also inhibits and/or prevents the movement of threatened and rare species such as elephants, rhinos and tigers.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Brachiaria muticahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1075
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffalo grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, Mauritius signal grass, para grass, Scotch grass
Cambodia: smau barang
Indonesia: jukut inggris, rumput malela, sukut kolonjono
Thailand: ya khon
Viet Nam: co lông tây, co lông para
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass, stoloniferous [creeping or trailing stem (culm) that grows above ground for part of its length, rooting at the nodes], culms (grass stem) up to 5 m long with upright portion tall [0.9–2 (–3) m high], sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) are hairy.
Leaves: Green, moderately hairy (15–30 cm long and 3–20 mm wide).
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (10–25 cm long and 5–10 cm wide) with 5–20 branchlets (each 2–13 cm long), each with many almost hairless flower spikelets (2.5–3.5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Sub-Saharan Africa
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder and erosion control
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, drainage ditches, lowlands, swamps, wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands replacing native wetland plants and interfering with aquatic ecosystems. Para grass chokes streams and wetlands, slowing water flow and increasing sedimentation (Arthington et al., 1983; Humphries et al., 1994; Bunn et al., 1998). In North Queensland, Australia, infestations reduced channel discharge capacity by 85% (Bunn et al., 1998) increasing the frequency and intensity of floods. Poor drainage (excessive waterlogging) can also reduce sugarcane yields by up to A $100,000 per property per annum in coastal North Queensland, Australia. In the Babinda area, Australia, cane growers spend an estimated A $23,000 each year on herbicide to control para grass in drainage ditches (Fisk, 1991). Infestations can also affect nesting habits and feeding areas for waterfowl (Humphries et al., 1994). For example, it is destroying the breeding habitat of the magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata Latham) and contributing to the decline of the endangered yellow chat (Epthianura crocea tunneyi Mathews) in the Alligator River floodplain in the Northern Territory, Australia. Infestations also increase the frequency and intensity of fires contributing to further biodiversity loss. Para grass is an alternative host for a number of agriculturally important pests and diseases (Holm et al., 1991).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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