Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Mytilopsis salleiTooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 47
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: false mussel, Caribbean black-striped mussel, Caribbean black-striped false mussel, Santo Domingo false mussel, black striped mussel
 
DESCRIPTION
Mytilopsis sallei is a small, fingernail sized mussel, growing to an average size of 25mm, although sizes range from lengths of 8-25mm, with a maximum width of 9.68mm and a maximum height of 12.58mm. It has a varied shell colouration, from black through to a light colour, with some small individuals having a light and dark zig-zag pattern. The right valve overlaps the left valve, and is slightly larger. M. sallei settles in clusters, and is rarely seen as a single individual (NIMPIS, 2002).
 
NATIVE RANGE
World: Atlantic - Western Central, Guatemala, United States, West Indies
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
WORLD: Australia, Hongkong, Japan, Fiji, India, Mexico, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat hull fouling
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hull fouling is often an important factor in incursions, such as the introduction of M. sallei to Darwin Harbour, Australia in the 1990s (Hutchings et al. 2002).Spread via ballast water appears less likely because of the short duration of the larval stage (CSIRO, 2001).
 
IMPACTS
Mytilopsis sallei is an extremely prolific and fecund species, being ecologically similar to its relation the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. It has been responsible for massive fouling on wharves and marinas, seawater systems (pumping stations, vessel ballast and cooling systems) and marine farms. In preferred habitats, it forms dense monospecific groups that exclude most other species, leading to a substantial reduction in biodiversity in infected areas (NIMPIS, 2002; CSIRO, 2001).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Mytilopsis sallei. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1047 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Musculista senhousiaTooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 46
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Asian mussel, green mussel, cuckoo mussel, senhouse mussel, hototogisu, Senhouse's mussel, Asian date mussel, Japanese mussel, green bagmussel, date mussel
 
DESCRIPTION
Musculista senhousia is a small mussel with a maximum length of around 30mm, but most commonly 10-25mm in length and up to 12mm in width. It has a smooth, thin shell which is an olive green to brown in colour, with dark radial lines or zigzag markings. A well developed byssus is used to construct a cocoon which protects the shell. This cocoon is made up of byssal threads and sediment. M. senhousia burrows vertically down into the sand/mud leaving only its posterior end protruding, allowing its siphons access to the water to enable feeding (NIMPIS, 2002; CIESM, 2005).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
World: Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN:
WORLD: Australia, China, France, Italy, Mediterranean and Black Sea, New Zealand, Tanzania Republic Of, Canada, Egypt, Israel, Madagascar, Mexico, Slovenia, United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water 
Aquaculture
Trading
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Musculista senhousia may have been introduced to Australia as an accidental importation with Pacific oysters (CSIRO, 2000). In the Mediterranean, invasion of M. senhousia has been strictly linked with shellfish arming and trading.The initial invasion of the Pacific coast of the USA is attributed to transport with oysters imported from Japan (Mistri et al. 2004).
 
IMPACTS
Musculista senhousia can dominate benthic communities and potentially exclude native species. It settles in aggregations and is therefore able to reach high densities. Unlike most mussels, M.senhousia lives entirely within the sediments, surrounded by a bag of byssal threads. At mussel densities of greater than 1500 m2, individual byssal bags coalesce to form a continuous mat or carpet on the sediment surface. The presence of these mats dramatically alters the natural benthic habitat, changing both the local physical environment and the resident macroinvertebrate assemblage. M. senhousia deposits large amounts of organic matter in the sediment, which possibly results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as sulfide, which can have adverse effects on seagrass growth (Morton, 1974; Ito and Kajihara, 1981; in Reusch and Williams, 1998).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Musculista senhousia. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1031 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Charybdis japonicaTooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 44

SYSTEM

Marine, Terrestrial

COMMON NAMES

English: Asian crab, paddle crab, Asian paddle crab, swimming crab, blue crab

DESCRIPTION
 
Charybdis japonica have a carapace width of up to 12cm (Gust et al. 2003). They have a pilose (hairy) carapace (although amount of hair varies to little or none). The carapace has ridges with six frontal teeth, triangular and sharp. The inner supraorbital lobe is broadly triangular (Smith et al. 2003). Wee and Ng (1995) record the colour of C. japonica in Japan as mottled cream and purple. In the Waitemata harbour (New  Zealand) specimens varied from pale green and off-white, through olive green to a deep chestnut with purplish markings on the carapace and upper surfaces of the appendages (Smith et al. 2003). In addition, most Waitemata specimens have yellow-orange markings, some with only a hint of yellow-orange and some with very noticeable brown-orange on parts of the carapace and the legs, especially on the chelae where the upper colouration grades into the white to off-white ventral surfaces (Smith et al. 2003).

NATIVE RANGE

ASEAN: Malaysia, Thailand
World: China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Taiwan

KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE

New Zealand
 
PATHWAY
 
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water
 

REASON FOR INTRODUCTION

The paddle crab may have been introduced from ship ballast water (Gust et al. 2003). This is known to be a potential route of spread of the Asian paddle crab.

IMPACTS
 
Disease transmission is one of the key potential impacts of the paddle crab in introduced environments. C. japonica is known to be a host or carrier of the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) (Maeda et al. 1998, in Potential next pests 2003). WSSV is a serious fisheries threat as it infects a broad spectrum of crustaceans, and can cause cumulative mortalities of up to 100% within 3 to 10 days from the first sign of disease
(Lightner 1996, in Potential next pests 2003).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Charybdis japonica. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1044 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Gracilaria salicorniaTooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 44
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: red alga
Philippines: canot-canot; caocaoayan
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria salicornia varies in colour from a bright yellow at the tips to orange, green or brown at the base. The thallus is cylindrical (0.5cm in diameter) and dichotomously branched with constrictions at the base of each dichotomy. In Hawai’i it generally grows in three-dimensional mats that are tightly adherent to hard substrata and can be up to 25-40cm in thickness; in calm environments it may grow in an upright and more openly branching form (Smith Pers. Comm. 2003).
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
World: Australia, Fiji, India, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, United States, Yemen, China, Guam, Japan, Kuwait, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Reunion, South Africa, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water; Ship/boat hull fouling
Intentional release
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Gracilaria salicornia was introduced intentionally to two reefs on O'ahu, Hawai'i, in the 1970s for experimental aquaculture for the agar industry (Smith et al. 2004).A likely vector of transport of invasive marine algae is through ship fouling and/or ballast water. In Hawaii many alien algae were first collected in or around harbors and gradually dispersed to neighbouring areas (Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
IMPACTS
In tropical regions, blooms of indigenous algae (such as Gracilaria salicornia) have often been tied to reductions in grazing intensity and increases in anthropogenically derived nutrient levels (Miller et al. 1999, McClanahan et al. 2001, McCook et al. 2001, Smith et al. 2001, Stimson et al. 2001, Thacker et al. 2001, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002). G. salicornia is likely to damage native coral environments by over-growing native benthic organisms such as algae and marine invertebrates. Because of its large morphological stature and the dense mats it forms (5 to 10cm thick), G. salicornia can have large effects on benthic ecology by monopolising stratum (Smith et al. 2004). In many cases, red alga becomes ecologically dominant and grows over coral reefs. For example, in areas of Hawaii such as Waikiki G. salicornia has become the single-most dominant benthic species in an area that before invasion was home to over 60 species of macroalgae (Doty 1969, in Smith et al. 2004. The long-term consequences of phase shifts from coral to algal dominance may include the loss of biodiversity, a decrease in the intrinsic value of the reef, changes in the community structure (eg: a reduction in the numbers of reef fish dependent upon corals for habitat and shelter), and erosion of the reef (Hughes 1994, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria salicornia. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1026 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
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