Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Prosopis juliflorahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 894
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: algorroba, ironwood, mesquite
Philippines: aroma
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or tree with thorns/spines, multi-stemmed but occasionally single stemmed [3–5 (15) m high], twigs distinctively zigzag.
Bark: Thick, rough grey-green, scaly with age and armed with sharp thorns/spines (up to 5 cm long).
Leaves: Dark green, hairless or hairy, twice-divided, 1–3 (–4) pairs of leaf branchlets (3–11 cm long) each with 11–15 pairs of leaflets, narrow, somewhat elongated with parallel sides (6–23 mm long and 1.6–5.5 mm wide), with smooth margins, no terminal leaflet, leaves grow alternately on stem. Flowers: Yellow, small, in cylindrical spikes (5–10 cm long and 1.5 cm side), solitary or in clusters near the leaf axils, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning yellow as they mature, flat, slightly curved (8–29 cm long and 9–17 mm wide), containing 10–20 oval seeds (2–8 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, timber, fodder, tannin, landscape restoration, windbreaks, shade, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, fallow land, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation, floodplains, gullies and sandy stream beds.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and reduces the abundance and diversity of bird and other animal species. In Ethiopia, P. juliflora has reduced understorey basal cover for perennial grasses and reduced the number of grass species from seven to two (Kebede and Coppock, 2015). By transforming habitats and eliminating pasture species, it threatens the survival of Grévy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) in invaded areas (Kebede and Coppock, 2015). Other negative impacts include encroachment onto paths, villages, homes, water sources, crop- and pasturelands; and injuries inflicted by the thorns (Maundu et al., 2009). Infestations have contributed to the abandonment of agricultural land, homes and small villages. The pollen has been identified as a major allergen (Killian and McMichael, 2004). In semi-arid parts of Africa, P. juliflora has depleted the natural resources on which thousands of people depend, spawning conflict between communities over the diminishing resources.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Eichhornia crassipeshot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 914
PICKEREL WEED FAMILY
Pontederiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: lilac devil, Nile lily, pickerelweed, water hyacinth, water orchid
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, free-floating, aquatic plant that may become anchored in shallow water; [10–20 (–100) cm high]; roots are long and feathery; runners (10 cm long) are produced across the water surface and give rise to new plants.
Leaves: Dark green, shiny, hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped to almost rounded (2–25 cm long and 2–15 cm wide) with swollen bladder-like stems (30 cm long).
Flowers: Pale violet or blue (4–6 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide), upper petal of each flower has a prominent yellow-centred patch; flowers in clusters of 8–10.
Fruits: Capsules (a dry fruit that opens at maturity) (10–15 mm long), containing very fine seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
This aquatic weed has the ability to form thick mats which hamper water transport; inhibit or even prevent fishing-related activities; block waterways and canals; hamper hydroelectricity generation; and provide breeding sites for vectors of human and animal diseases, increasing the incidence of malaria, encephalitis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, river blindness and possibly cholera (Burton, 1960; Spira et al., 1981; Gopal, 1987; Viswam et al., 1989). The thick mats reduce light penetration into the water, causing declines in the concentrations of phytoplankton that support the zooplankton–fish food chain. Extensive mats of water hyacinth increase water loss through evapotranspiration, and impact rice production (Waterhouse, 1993). In southern Benin, an infestation of water hyacinth reduced the annual income of 200,000 people by about US $84 million (de Groote et al., 2003). Lost revenues for men were mostly fishing-related, while women experienced lost revenues in trade, primarily of food crops and fish.
 
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018.

 

file icon Passiflora suberosahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 922
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cork passion flower, small passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Viet Nam: lac tiên ban
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, slender vine/climber or creeper, stems (up to 6 m in length) producing tendrils in the leaf forks, young stems are round or sometimes angular, becoming corky at the base with age.
Leaves: Dark green, simple (3–11 cm long and 4–12 cm wide), with three-pointed lobes, margins occasionally entire, leaves held alternately on the stems and borne on stalks (0.5–4 cm long).
Flowers: White to pale green, small (15–25 mm wide), on stalks (1.5–2.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning bluish-black or purplish-black as it matures, rounded (1–1.5 cm wide), contain numerous wrinkled seeds (3–4 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation reducing biodiversity. This climber, together with other invasive plant species, threatens Platydesma cornuta Hillebr. var. decurrens B.C. Stone (Rutaceae), a rare shrub endemic on Oahu of which only about 200 individual plants remain (Richardson, 2007). It also invades sugarcane fields and Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Mauritius (Seeruttun et al., 2005). Areas covered with dead and dying native plants become a fire hazard or increase the potential for erosion (Garrison et al., 2002). It is apparently toxic to cattle and ducks (Everist, 1974).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Coccinea grandishot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 952
GOURD FAMILY
Cucurbitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ivy gourd, kovai fruit, little gourd, scarlet gourd, tindora
Cambodia: slok bahs, voer bahs
Indonesia: timun kecil, timun jepang
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, herbaceous vine (9–28 m long) with hairless stems, extensive tuberous root system and axillary tendrils.
Leaves: Green, hairless above and hairy below, simple, eggshaped with broad and rounded base tapering towards the end or heart-shaped (5–9 cm long and 4–9 cm wide), sometimes with 3–7 shallow to deep lobes, margins finely to minutely toothed, held alternately on stem, leaf stalks 1–3 cm long.
Flowers: White, large, star-shaped with five petals.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green
turning bright red as they mature, smooth, egg-or oval-shaped (25–60 mm long and 14–35 mm wide); stalks are 10–40 mm long.
 
ORIGIN
Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal,Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Food and ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, gardens, cropland, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Very aggressive and can smother and kill other vegetation, including large trees. In Hawaii, it smothers trees and understorey vegetation (Muniappan et al., 2009). It has the potential to invade dry forest areas on Maui and out-compete rare native plants (Starr et al., 2003a). According to Medeiros et al. (1993) C. grandis ‘would not only trigger the decline of much of the remaining biota but also transform the visual landscape to even the most casual of observers’. C. grandis is ‘an aggressive alien vine that tends to out-compete all other plants’ (Starr and Martz, 2000). It can also cover fences, power lines and other infrastructure causing economic damage. In the last two decades, C. grandis has emerged as an invasive weed in the islands of Guam and Saipan, where it is a problem plant both in managed gardens and natural areas (PIER, 2005). It is also a host for a number of crop pests in the family Cucurbitaceae including Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Aulacophora spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bemisia spp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Cardiospermum halicacabumhot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 956
SOAPBERRY FAMILY
Sapindaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: heart pea, heart seed, lesser balloon vine, love in a puff
Cambodia: am baeng baek, peng poh sraom, puos am baeng
Indonesia: paria gunung
Philippines: bangkolon, kana, paspalya
Viet Nam: cây tam phong
 
DESCRIPTION
Herbaceous or slightly woody evergreen climber [up to 1–3 (–6) m high] with tendrils (slender, usually twisting structure which aids ‘climbing’); grooved stems.
Leaves: Bright green, hairless or covered in minute hairs, compound, leaflets arranged in three sets of three, narrow and tapering to a point (3–5 cm long), side leaflets smaller, margins with deep and sharp forward-pointing projections or teeth.
Flowers: White or yellow (2–3 mm long), in a few-flowered, open clusters, on long stalks (5–10 cm long); two (2 cm long) paired tendrils just below inflorescence.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, membranous inflated, nearly globular (25–30 mm long); seeds black, round, with a kidney-shaped white spot.
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in Africa; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in South America; and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, crops, plantations, gardens, forest edges/gaps, riparian areas, swamps and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Balloon vine smothers native vegetation, depriving it of sunlight and in so doing displaces native plant species. In Brazil, where C. halicacabum is considered to be native, it can reducesoybean crop yields by up to 26%(Brighenti et al., 2003; Dempsey, 2011). In Texas, there is also concern that it may contaminate certified soybean seeds since both seeds are similar in size and shape (Hurst, 1980). It is also considered to be a pest in sorghum, rice and oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia (Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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