Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Panicum repenshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1067
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bullet grass, couch panicum, creeping panic grass, quack grass, torpedograss
Cambodia: smau phluk
Indonesia: rumput lampuyangan
Philippines: luya-luyahan, pagudpel, parayparay
Viet Nam: co gung, co cua gà, co ong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass with culms (flowering stem) (1 m in height) arising from long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips.
Leaves: Green, linear, flat or folded (7–25 cm long and 2–8 mm wide) with a whitish, waxy covering; leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) hairless or hairy, with hairs usually restricted to the upper margins; ligule (thin outgrowth at junction of the leaf and leaf stalk) is membranous with short hairs.
Flowers: Branched, open inflorescences (7–22 cm long) with 1–3 branchlets per node.
 
ORIGIN
Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Greece and Italy in Europe.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Forage
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, lowlands, floodplains, wetlands, gullies,lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native vegetation, particularly in or near shallow waters. It is also a serious weed in a wide range of perennial crops including sugarcane in Taiwan and Hawaii; pineapple in West Africa; tea in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka; various orchard crops in Thailand; rubber, coconut and oil palm in Malaysia; and rice in Indonesia and Sri Lanka (Holm et al., 1977). In Taiwan, rhizome density can reach 15 tons per hectare, while a density of 5 tons per hectare can result in a 50% reduction in sugarcane yield (Peng and Sze, 1974). P. repens may act as an alternative host to the rice leafhopper (Holm et al., 1977).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Mikania micranthahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1071
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American rope, bitter vine, Chinese creeper, climbing hemp vine, mile-a-minute weed
Cambodia: voer tun trean khaet
Indonesia: caputuheun, mikania, sembung rambat
Malaysia: cheroma, ulam tikus
Viet Nam: cây cúc leo
 
DESCRIPTION
A branched, scrambling, slender-stemmed, fast-growing, evergreen vine; stem slightly ribbed lengthwise, hairless or slightly hairy.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, heart-shaped or triangular with a pointed tip and a broad base (4–13cm long and 2–9 cm wide), 3–5 veined from base, margins are coarsely toothed; leaves held in opposite pairs along the stems with leaf stalks 2–8 cm long.
Flowers: Fluffy white to greenish-white, often with purple tinge (3–6 mm long), in dense clusters in the forks of the leaves or at the ends of the branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, linear to elongated with almost parallel sides, five-angled (1.2–2 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba,Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St. Lucia, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, riversides and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly smothers native plants and crops. It is considered to be one of the worst weeds of plantation crops in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In Southeast Asia, it affects yields of cocoa, coconut, orchards, rubber, oil palm, vegetables and rice (Waterhouse, 1993). The annual cost of controlling M. micrantha was estimated at US $9.8 million for rubber, oil palm and cocoa crops in Malaysia (Teoh et al., 1985). In Samoa, it has led to the abandonement of coconut plantations where it is also known tohave killed large breadfruit trees. In Papua New Guinea, about 45% of all respondents estimated that M. micrantha causes yield losses in excess of 30% (Day et al., 2012). In summer, the dried aerial parts are also a fire hazard allowiing fires to penetrate deeper into forests and other natural vegetation.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Swietenia macrophyllahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1143
MAHOGANY FAMILY
Meliaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: big-leaved mahogany, broad-leaved mahogany, Honduras mahogany
Cambodia: kroab baek
Indonesia: mahoni
Malaysia: cheria mahogany
Thailand: mahokkani-bailek
Viet Nam: cây nhac ngua
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tropical tree species (up to 40–60 m high), trunk is straight, cylindrical, 3–4 m in circumference, buttresses up to 5 m high, crown of young trees is narrow, but old trees have a broad, dense and highly branched crown.
Bark: Brownish-grey to reddish-brown, deeply furrowed, scaly, inner bark red-brown or pinkish red, flaking off in small patches.
Leaves: Green, once-divided [12–45 (–60) cm long], 3–6 pairs of sword- or egg-shaped leaflets (5–12 cm long and 2–5 cm wide), margins entire gradually tapering to a sharp point.
Flowers: Small (0.5–1 cm long and 8 mm across), in clusters (10–20 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), light grey to brown, egg-shaped (12–39 cm long and 7–12 cm wide) containing 20–70 winged seeds (7–12 cm long and 2–2.5 cm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Disturbed land, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Mahogany readily invades secondary forests and forest edges and gaps preventing native species regeneration. In the lowlands of Mount Makiling, Philippines, mahogany had penetrated 250 m into secondary forests in 70 years (Baguinon, 2011). Dominance is facilitated by the fact that mahogany may also be allelopathic (Thinley, 2002). Extracts from the leaves of mahogany were shown to retard the growth of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) seedlings in the Philippines (Baguinon et al., 2003). Diversity of native plants in general was also considerably reduced under or near S. macrophylla stands. Invasive mahogany species together with other introduced plants are preventing the regeneration of dipterocarp and nondipterocarp forests in parts of Asia.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018

 

file icon Passiflora foetidahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1306
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: foetid passion flower, passion flower, stinking passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Cambodia: voer saw maw
Indonesia: buah tikus, ceplukan blunsun, katceprek, katjeprek, lemanas, permot, permot rajutan, rambaton blunsun
Lao PDR: nya ham ho
Malaysia: pokok lang bulu, timun dendang
Myanmar: chin-gya-thee-pin, su-ka
Philippines: belon-belon, kurunggut, lupok-lupok, masaflora, melon meleonan, taungan, pasionariang-mabaho, prutas taungan
Thailand: ka thok rok
Viet Nam: chùm bao, nhãn long
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, tendril climber; stems sometimes angular (up to 15 m high); tendril at the base of each leaf stalk together with a stipule (threadlike appendage) covered in sticky glands; stems have an unpleasant odour.
Leaves: Glossy dark-green above, simple, deeply three-lobed, but sometimes entire or five-lobed (3–10.5 cm long and 3–10 cm wide), margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth; leaves held alternately on stems and borne on stalks (1–6 cm long).
Flowers: White or purplish (3–5 cm across), borne singly on stalks (2–4.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), greenishyellow turning yellow/orange as it matures, round, dry, large (1.5–4 cm long), hairless, partially enclosed by the sticky bracts.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, edible fruit, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, savannah and riparian zones.
 
IMPACTS
In parts of Malaysia it is a serious weed of maize and rubber. It also impacts negatively on coconut production in the Pacific, on maize, sugarcane and cotton in Thailand, on oil palm in Indonesia, on taro in Samoa, and on various other crops in Sarawak (Holm et al., 1997). It is an alternative host for a number of diseases which affect cultivated passion fruit.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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