Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

DocumentsDate added

Order by : Name | Date | Hits | [ Descendent ]
file icon Sphagneticola trilobatahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 528
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: creeping oxeye, creeping daisy, creeping wedelia, Singapore daisy
Indonesia: seruni, widelia, wedelia
Malaysia: panchut-panchut
Philippines: imelda
Viet Nam: son cúc ba thùy
 
DESCRIPTION
Creeping, mat-forming evergreen herb with scrambling or climbing habit [15–30 (–70) cm tall]; stems green or reddish (up to 2 m long), slightly hairy, rounded, rooting at the joints.
Leaves: Dark green, glossy, almost hairless, simple, fleshy (40–180 mm long and 15–80 mm wide), three-lobed, margins toothed, held in opposite pairs on stem, stalkless or on short stalks.
Flowers: Bright yellow to orange, daisy-like (20–35 mm across), borne singly on upright stalks (3–15 cm long).
Fruits: Achene (small, dry, one-seeded fruit that does not open at maturity), brown, elongate (4–5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, erosion control and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wasteland, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Forms a dense ground cover to the detriment of other plant species. It is also allelopathic enhancing its competitiveness (Zhang et al., 2004). Even low infestation levels have a negative impact on plant diversity. In a study on Hainan Island, China, S. trilobata already starts decreasing plant community diversity at 10% cover (Qi et al., 2014). In south-east Viti Levu and Taveuni Island, Fiji, it has invaded taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott; Araceae] fields (Macanawai, 2013).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Tithonia diversifoliahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 603
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mexican sunflower, shrub sunflower, tree marigold
Cambodia: chhouk roth japon
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Viet Nam: dã quy
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or evergreen herbaceous shrub, woody at the base [2–3 (–5) m high]; stems slightly ridged and hairy when young.
Leaves: Greyish-green, finely hairy on underside giving a grey appearance, simple (6–33 cm long and 5–22 cm wide) with 3–5 (–7) pointed lobes, margins with a series of curved projections or teeth; held opposite or alternately on stem.
Flowers: Bright yellow, daisy or sunflower-like (up to 10 cm across), held on long and swollen stalks (7–30 cm long) which are velvety below the flowerhead.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown (4–8 mm long), in a spiky mass.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder, medicine, mulch, soil improvement, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed sites, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, savannah, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands displacing native plant species and the animals associated with them. T. diversifolia is displacing native species in the wetlands of the Apete River, Eleyele Lake and Oba Dam in Ibadan, Nigeria, including the invasive and aggressive shrub Chromolaena odorata (Oluode et al., 2011), and is now considered to be one of the most invasive species in Nigeria (Borokini, 2011). Mexican sunflower has the ability to compete with agricultural crops (Ilori et al., 2007) and is contributing to the extinction of local species, including important medicinal plants (Oludare and Muoghalu, 2014). According to reports, it is leading to the abandonment of farms in the Copperbelt region of Zambia.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Stachytarpheta jamaicensishot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 622
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: blue porter weed, blue snake weed, Brazilian tea, Jamaica snakeweed, porterweed, snake weed
Indonesia: gewongan, jarong
Malaysia: ramput tahi babi, selaseh dandi
Philippines: albaka, bilu-bilu, bolomaros, kandi-kandilaan, limbagat, sentemiento, verbena de las antilles
Viet Nam: cây duôi chuot, hai tiên
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrubby herb (60–120 cm high), young stems green or purplish, mostly hairless and square in cross-section becoming rounded, light brown and woody as they mature; woody rootstock.
Leaves: Green with a bluish or greyish tinge, leathery, hairless or with a few hairs on veins on undersides, simple, leaves eggshaped, oval or somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–12 cm long and 1–5 cm wide) with rounded tips, margins sharp but finely toothed; leaves held opposite each other on stems on stalks 5–35 mm long.
Flowers: Light blue, blue or mauve, tubular (7–11 mm long and 8 mm across) on long, curved and thick spikes (15–50 cm long and 3–7 mm thick) at the end of branches.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning dark brown, dark purple or black as they mature, small, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (3–7 mm longand 1.5–2 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, south-eastern USA, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed sites, wastelands, fallow land, plantations, managed pasture, gardens, drainage ditches, savannah, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, lowlands, floodplains and coastal environs.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands outcompeting native plants for water and nutrients. Probable host of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus in India (Mathew and Balakrishnan, 1991).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Xanthium strumariumhot!Tooltip 10/24/2018 Hits: 685
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: large cocklebur, noogoora bur, sheep bur
Cambodia: kropeatt chrouk
Malaysia: buah anjang
Thailand: kachab
Viet Nam: cây ké dau ngua
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, much-branched herb with erect stems (20–150 cm high) without spines; stems stout, green, brownish or reddish-brown, roughly hairy.
Leaves: Green, paler below, hairy on both surfaces, broadly eggshaped to triangular (2–8 cm long), margins irregularly toothed or lobed, on long leaf stalks (2–8 cm), held alternately on stems.
Flowers: Green, inconspicuous, in the leaf axils.
Fruits: Burrs, green turning yellowish then brown as they mature (1.5–2.5 cm long), covered with hooked spines (up to 20 mm long) and two terminal beaks.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain, but probably Central and South America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Bee forage and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, savannah, water courses, lowlands, floodplains and sandy and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly forms large stands, displacing other plant species. X.strumarium is a major weed of row crops such as soya beans, cotton, maize and groundnuts in many parts of the world, including North America, southern Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, India and Japan (Webster and Coble, 1997). It also has a damaging impact on rice production in South-east Asia (Waterhouse, 1993). In the USA, high-density cocklebur infestations have resulted in soya bean yield losses of as much as 80% (Stoller et al., 1987; Rushing and Oliver, 1998). Infestations can also decrease soya bean seed quality and harvesting efficiency (Ellis et al., 998). Even low-density cocklebur infestations in cotton fields in the USA have contributed to seed yield losses of 60–90 kg per hectare, or approximately 5% (Snipes et al.,1982). Cocklebur has also caused yield losses in groundnuts of 31–39% and 88% at low and high densities, respectively, in the southern USA (Royal et al., 1997). X. strumarium burs lodge in animal hair and in sheep’s wool, reducing the quality and increasing treatment costs (Wapshere, 1974; Hocking and Liddle, 1986). The plants are toxic to livestock and can lead to death if eaten (Weaver and Lechowicz, 1983). Cocklebur is also an alternative host for a number of crop pests (Hocking and Liddle, 1986).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Pistia stratioteshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 892
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Nile cabbage, tropical duckweed, water cabbage, water lettuce
Cambodia: chark Thom
Indonesia: apon-apon, apu-apu, kiapu
Malaysia: kiambang
Thailand: chok, jawg
Viet Nam: bèo cái
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, usually free-floating aquatic plant; consists of a rosette of leaves (30 cm across) with a tuft of long, feathery roots (up to 80 cm long); plants develop runners (up to 60 cm long); resemble floating lettuces.
Leaves: Pale yellow-green or greyish-green, spongy, narrow at the base and rounded at the tips (2.5–15 cm long and 2–8 cm wide), margins with a series of curved projections, leaves ribbed with 6–15 longitudinal veins radiating from the base; soft white velvety hairs are found on the top and bottom of the leaf which repel water.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, pale green or white, arising from leaf forks.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), small, green, eggshaped or oval, (5–10 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Water lettuce infestations contribute to increased rates of siltation, slowing of water flow rates, degradation of fish nesting sites, increased nutrient loading, thermal stratification, increased alkalinity, and fish and macro-invertebrate mortality (Dray and Center, 2002). Mats of water lettuce block waterways, making navigation difficult. Mats of the weed also hamper fishing activities, interfere with hydroelectricity generation and hinder flood control efforts. They provide habitats for vectors of disease, and can interfere with rice production (Holm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
<< Start < Prev 11 12 13 14 15 16 Next > End >>
Page 12 of 16