Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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English: calliandra, red calliandra
Indonesia: kaliandra, kaliandra merah
Malaysia: kaliandra
Viet Nam: muong hoa pháo
Evergreen, thornless, often multi-stemmed leguminous shrub or small tree [5–6 (–12 m) tall] with a trunk diameter of 20 (–30) cm.
Bark: White to red-brown and hairless, sometimes finely hairy.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided (10–19 cm long) with 6–20 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each with 19–60 pairs of linear, somewhat elongated and pointed leaflets (5–8 mm long and 1 mm wide).
Flowers: Red in terminal clusters up to 30 cm long with numerous long shiny red stamens, showy.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, straight, flattened (8–13 cm long and 1–1.6 cm wide) with thickened and raised margins splitting open, with each half curling back, held erect on stem.
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
Fuelwood, building materials, fodder, ornament, soil conservation, nitrogen fixation and green manure.
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, plantation edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
It has the ability to form dense thickets, displacing native species, especially in riparian areas. It is an aggressive colonizer of disturbed habitats, is highly adaptable, and able to grow under a wide variety of soil and environmental conditions (Macqueen, 1992; Palmer et al., 1994). It has the potential to suppress other plants very quickly when competing for water and nutrients (CONABIO, 2014). In Kabale, Uganda, some farmers claimed that it competed with food crops, impacted negatively on soil nutrients and harboured pest birds. Calliandra also fixes nitrogen and as a result impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from on 10 October 2018
file icon Bugula neritinaTooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 17
English: bryozoan, common bugula, brown bryozoan
Bugula neritina forms flexible bushy colonies, branching biserial, to about 10cm high and is purplish-brown in colour. Zooids white and globular, with the outer corner pointed (Bishop Museum 2002, in Gordon and Mawatari, 1992). Zooids are large and measure an average of 0.97 X 0.28mm. B. neritina differs from other species in this genus in that it possesses no avicularia and no spines. The lophophore measures an average of 0.764mm in diameter and bears 23 tentacles (SMSFP 2001). Embryos brooded in ovicells are dark brown in colour and measure approximately 0.25mm in diameter (SMSFP 2001 in Winston 1982).
ASEAN: Philippines
WORLD: Argentina, Australia, Bermuda, Chile, Ecuador, France, India, Italy, Korea Democratic People’s Republic of, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, Atlantic-Western Central, Belgium, Brazil, China, Egypt, Germany, Israel, Japan, Korea Republic of, Mediterranean and Black Sea, Netherlands, Panama, Puerto Rico, Turkey, United States
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water; Ship/boat hull fouling
Bugula neritina attaches to oyster shells and be transferred along with oyster shippings (Cohen 2005). Bugula neritina can be transported via tiny colonies attached to the sides of ballast tanks or on floating material inside the ballast tanks (Cohen 2005). Ship/boat hull fouling is a common means of movement of Bugula neritina colonies and a likely source of ongoing introductions.
Bryozoans are one of the main organisms to encrust and foul ships, piers, buoys and other man-made marine surfaces and structures (VMNH 2005).
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Bugula neritina. Available from: [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 268
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from on 10 October 2018
file icon Brachiaria muticahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 834
English: buffalo grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, Mauritius signal grass, para grass, Scotch grass
Cambodia: smau barang
Indonesia: jukut inggris, rumput malela, sukut kolonjono
Thailand: ya khon
Viet Nam: co lông tây, co lông para
Evergreen grass, stoloniferous [creeping or trailing stem (culm) that grows above ground for part of its length, rooting at the nodes], culms (grass stem) up to 5 m long with upright portion tall [0.9–2 (–3) m high], sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) are hairy.
Leaves: Green, moderately hairy (15–30 cm long and 3–20 mm wide).
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (10–25 cm long and 5–10 cm wide) with 5–20 branchlets (each 2–13 cm long), each with many almost hairless flower spikelets (2.5–3.5 mm long).
Sub-Saharan Africa
Fodder and erosion control
Roadsides, disturbed land, drainage ditches, lowlands, swamps, wetlands.
Can form dense stands replacing native wetland plants and interfering with aquatic ecosystems. Para grass chokes streams and wetlands, slowing water flow and increasing sedimentation (Arthington et al., 1983; Humphries et al., 1994; Bunn et al., 1998). In North Queensland, Australia, infestations reduced channel discharge capacity by 85% (Bunn et al., 1998) increasing the frequency and intensity of floods. Poor drainage (excessive waterlogging) can also reduce sugarcane yields by up to A $100,000 per property per annum in coastal North Queensland, Australia. In the Babinda area, Australia, cane growers spend an estimated A $23,000 each year on herbicide to control para grass in drainage ditches (Fisk, 1991). Infestations can also affect nesting habits and feeding areas for waterfowl (Humphries et al., 1994). For example, it is destroying the breeding habitat of the magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata Latham) and contributing to the decline of the endangered yellow chat (Epthianura crocea tunneyi Mathews) in the Alligator River floodplain in the Northern Territory, Australia. Infestations also increase the frequency and intensity of fires contributing to further biodiversity loss. Para grass is an alternative host for a number of agriculturally important pests and diseases (Holm et al., 1991).
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from on 8 October 2018
file icon Bidens pilosahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 255
English: black jack, beggar’s tick, broom stick, cobbler’s pegs, Spanish needle
Indonesia: ajeran
Lao PDR: pak kwan cham
Myanmar: moat-so-ma-hlan, ta-se-urt
Philippines: borburtak, enwad, kaperek, nguwad, puriket, pisau-pisau, tubak-tubak
Thailand: puen nok sai
Viet Nam: xuyen chi
Annual or evergreen erect herb (up to 1 m tall), hairless stems, fourangled, purplish green in colour, simple or branched.
Leaves: Green, compound with 3–5 leaflets each; leaflets variable but usually egg-shaped with a broader and rounded base tapering towards the end to spear-shaped [3–7 (–10) cm long and 1–2 (–5) cm wide], margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth, terminal leaflet always larger than lateral (side) ones.
Flowers: White petals, centre yellow (7–8 mm wide), usually borne singly on stalks (1 cm long).
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, slender (1.5 mm long), ribbed, 2–4 barbed bristles or awns at terminal end.
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
Accidentally as a contaminant.
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wastelands, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens, drainage ditches, forest edges/ gaps, woodlands, riversides, lowlands, floodplains and gullies.
Under favourable conditions a single plant can produce 3,000–6,000 seeds per year, with 3–4 generations annually. This, together with its allelopathic properties, allows it to form dense stands rapidly, displacing
native vegetation. In Southeast Asia, this weed is problematic for those growing cabbage, pineapple, guava and plantation crops (Waterhouse, 1993). Densities of eight blackjack plants per square metre, in soybean
fields in Argentina, reduced yields by 43% (Arce et al., 1995). Dry bean harvests in Uganda and Peru were reduced by 48% and 18–48%, respectively, as a result of the presence of B. pilosa. B. pilosa is also a
host and vector to harmful parasites such as root knot nematodes and tomato spotted wilt virus (Mvere, 2004; DPI, 2008).
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from on 8 October 2018
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