Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Cardiospermum halicacabumhot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 770
SOAPBERRY FAMILY
Sapindaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: heart pea, heart seed, lesser balloon vine, love in a puff
Cambodia: am baeng baek, peng poh sraom, puos am baeng
Indonesia: paria gunung
Philippines: bangkolon, kana, paspalya
Viet Nam: cây tam phong
 
DESCRIPTION
Herbaceous or slightly woody evergreen climber [up to 1–3 (–6) m high] with tendrils (slender, usually twisting structure which aids ‘climbing’); grooved stems.
Leaves: Bright green, hairless or covered in minute hairs, compound, leaflets arranged in three sets of three, narrow and tapering to a point (3–5 cm long), side leaflets smaller, margins with deep and sharp forward-pointing projections or teeth.
Flowers: White or yellow (2–3 mm long), in a few-flowered, open clusters, on long stalks (5–10 cm long); two (2 cm long) paired tendrils just below inflorescence.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, membranous inflated, nearly globular (25–30 mm long); seeds black, round, with a kidney-shaped white spot.
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in Africa; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in South America; and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, crops, plantations, gardens, forest edges/gaps, riparian areas, swamps and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Balloon vine smothers native vegetation, depriving it of sunlight and in so doing displaces native plant species. In Brazil, where C. halicacabum is considered to be native, it can reducesoybean crop yields by up to 26%(Brighenti et al., 2003; Dempsey, 2011). In Texas, there is also concern that it may contaminate certified soybean seeds since both seeds are similar in size and shape (Hurst, 1980). It is also considered to be a pest in sorghum, rice and oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia (Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Coccinea grandishot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 774
GOURD FAMILY
Cucurbitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ivy gourd, kovai fruit, little gourd, scarlet gourd, tindora
Cambodia: slok bahs, voer bahs
Indonesia: timun kecil, timun jepang
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, herbaceous vine (9–28 m long) with hairless stems, extensive tuberous root system and axillary tendrils.
Leaves: Green, hairless above and hairy below, simple, eggshaped with broad and rounded base tapering towards the end or heart-shaped (5–9 cm long and 4–9 cm wide), sometimes with 3–7 shallow to deep lobes, margins finely to minutely toothed, held alternately on stem, leaf stalks 1–3 cm long.
Flowers: White, large, star-shaped with five petals.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green
turning bright red as they mature, smooth, egg-or oval-shaped (25–60 mm long and 14–35 mm wide); stalks are 10–40 mm long.
 
ORIGIN
Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal,Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Food and ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, gardens, cropland, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Very aggressive and can smother and kill other vegetation, including large trees. In Hawaii, it smothers trees and understorey vegetation (Muniappan et al., 2009). It has the potential to invade dry forest areas on Maui and out-compete rare native plants (Starr et al., 2003a). According to Medeiros et al. (1993) C. grandis ‘would not only trigger the decline of much of the remaining biota but also transform the visual landscape to even the most casual of observers’. C. grandis is ‘an aggressive alien vine that tends to out-compete all other plants’ (Starr and Martz, 2000). It can also cover fences, power lines and other infrastructure causing economic damage. In the last two decades, C. grandis has emerged as an invasive weed in the islands of Guam and Saipan, where it is a problem plant both in managed gardens and natural areas (PIER, 2005). It is also a host for a number of crop pests in the family Cucurbitaceae including Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Aulacophora spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bemisia spp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Salvinia molestahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 789
WATERMOSS FAMILY
Salviniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: aquarium water-moss, Australian azolla, butterfly fern, giant salvinia, kariba-weed, salvinia, velvet weed
Cambodia: chark toch
Indonesia: kiambang
Thailand: chawk hunu
Viet Nam: bèo ong lon
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, free-floating fern, branching horizontal stems (up to 6–25 cm long and 1.2 cm thick), submerged feathery roots.
‘Leaves’: Green or yellowish-green fronds, in pairs, oval (2–6 cm long and 10–15 mm wide); almost impossible to wet due to a covering of fine egg-beater-shaped hairs (1–3 mm long) on upper surface; undersides covered in matted brown hairs.
Flowers: None
Fruits: None, reproduces from detached fragments.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Thick mats reduce light penetration into water bodies, impacting negatively on submerged aquatic plants. Infestations also often out-compete rooted and submerged native plants and in so doing, reduce plant diversity (Sculthorpe, 1985). Benthic fauna is usually also reduced (Coates, 1982), while fish can also be impacted by changes in oxygen concentrations as S. molesta plants die and rot within water bodies (Sculthorpe, 1985). It is also a pest of rice paddies in India, where it competes for water, nutrients and space, resulting in poor crop production (Anonymous, 1987). Dense mats also provide habitats for many human disease vectors such as Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, which have been identified as vectors of West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and rural elephantiasis (Pancho and Soerjani, 1978; Chow et al., 1955; Ramachandran, 1960; Lounibos et al., 1990). Mats also harbour snails that transmit schistosomiasis (Holm et al., 1977). Infestations also impact negatively on water transport and fishing. For example, entire villages, dependent on water transport were abandoned along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea when infestations of S. molesta limited access to healthcare, education and food (Gewertz, 1983).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Limnocharis flavahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 821
WATER POPPY FAMILY
Limnocharitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bur head, limnocharis, sawah lettuce, velvetleaf, yellow burrhead
Cambodia: trakiet paong
Indonesia: bangeng, eceng, enceng, berek, gunda, genjer
Lao PDR: kaanz choong
Malaysia: jinjir, paku rawan
Thailand: bon cheen, bonchin, nangkwak, talapatrusi, taalapat ruesee
Viet Nam: cây cù nèo, kèo nèo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen clump-forming, aquatic, herbaceous, rooted to the ground and emerges above the water surface (20–120 cm tall); large fleshy leaves borne in clusters along a short thick erect stem (about 3 cm long and 3 cm wide), contains a milky sap.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, triangular to rounded (5–30 cm long and 4–25 cm wide), margins entire or wavy, borne on long three-angled (triangular) stalks (5–90 cm long).
Flowers: Yellow, in clusters containing 2–15 flowers at the top of three-angled stalks (20–120 cm long).
Fruits: Rounded ‘capsules’ (15–20 mm across), that split up into several floating segments when mature.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, water courses, floodplains, swamps, wetlands and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Dominates invaded water bodies displacing other aquatic plant and animal species. It has become a serious weed in rice paddies and chokes irrigation and drainage canals (Waterhouse, 2003) facilitating siltation and reducing water discharge capacity (Kotalawala, 1976). In some cases, infestations are so severe leading to the abandonment of rice fields. Invaded areas also provide ideal breeding grounds for disease vectors such as mosquitoes, contributing to the spread of diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever (Abhilash et al., 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Brachiaria muticahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 835
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffalo grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, Mauritius signal grass, para grass, Scotch grass
Cambodia: smau barang
Indonesia: jukut inggris, rumput malela, sukut kolonjono
Thailand: ya khon
Viet Nam: co lông tây, co lông para
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass, stoloniferous [creeping or trailing stem (culm) that grows above ground for part of its length, rooting at the nodes], culms (grass stem) up to 5 m long with upright portion tall [0.9–2 (–3) m high], sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) are hairy.
Leaves: Green, moderately hairy (15–30 cm long and 3–20 mm wide).
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (10–25 cm long and 5–10 cm wide) with 5–20 branchlets (each 2–13 cm long), each with many almost hairless flower spikelets (2.5–3.5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Sub-Saharan Africa
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder and erosion control
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, drainage ditches, lowlands, swamps, wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands replacing native wetland plants and interfering with aquatic ecosystems. Para grass chokes streams and wetlands, slowing water flow and increasing sedimentation (Arthington et al., 1983; Humphries et al., 1994; Bunn et al., 1998). In North Queensland, Australia, infestations reduced channel discharge capacity by 85% (Bunn et al., 1998) increasing the frequency and intensity of floods. Poor drainage (excessive waterlogging) can also reduce sugarcane yields by up to A $100,000 per property per annum in coastal North Queensland, Australia. In the Babinda area, Australia, cane growers spend an estimated A $23,000 each year on herbicide to control para grass in drainage ditches (Fisk, 1991). Infestations can also affect nesting habits and feeding areas for waterfowl (Humphries et al., 1994). For example, it is destroying the breeding habitat of the magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata Latham) and contributing to the decline of the endangered yellow chat (Epthianura crocea tunneyi Mathews) in the Alligator River floodplain in the Northern Territory, Australia. Infestations also increase the frequency and intensity of fires contributing to further biodiversity loss. Para grass is an alternative host for a number of agriculturally important pests and diseases (Holm et al., 1991).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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