Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Vachellia niloticahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 425
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: gum arabic, Nile thorn, prickly acacia, scented thorn
Indonesia: akasia
Viet Nam: keo a rap
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thorny tree or shrub [4–6 (–25) m]; usually singlestemmed, crown scattered when young, later umbrella-shaped; thorns greyish (up to 10 cm long); deep and well-developed root system.
Bark: In young trees tinge of orange and/or green; in older trees brown-black, rough and deeply grooved.
Leaves: Dark green, hairless, twice-divided with 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets (4 cm long), each with 10–25 pairs of leaflets, which are narrow and somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–6 mm long and 0.5– .5 mm wide); pair of spines (1–5 cm long) at base of each group of leaves in young stems.
Flowers: Pale to golden yellow globular flowerheads (1–1.5 cm across) on 2 cm long stalks, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning black as they mature, straight or slightly curved (10–20 cm long and 5–17 mm wide), constrictions between each seed in the pod resemble a string of pearls.
 
ORIGIN
India, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tools, medicine, chicorysubstitute in coffee, fodder, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, windbreak, firebreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, woodland edges/gaps, savannah and natural pasture.
 
IMPACTS
In Queensland, Australia, tree cover of just 25–30% has reduced the amount of pasture by 50% (Carter, 1994). Dense thickets also make it difficult to herd livestock, and animals have reduced access to water. In Indonesia, A. nilotica in Baluran National Park has reduced the amount of grazing available for herbivores, threatening the continued existence of the endangered banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton; Bovidae). Infestations also contribute to increase soil erosion. Because the tree fixes nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 429
MULBERRY FAMILY
Moraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
 
DESCRIPTION
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Thunbergia grandiflorahot!Tooltip 10/04/2018 Hits: 434
ACANTHUS FAMILY
Acanthaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Bengal trumpet vine, blue thunbergia, blue trumpet vine, Indian sky flower
Cambodia: voer thnort
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Philippines: ag-agob, hagonoy, suga-suga, padawel, saromayag, kama-elaw
Viet Nam: dây bông xanh, bông báo
 
DESCRIPTION
A vigorous evergreen climber with rope-like stems (up to 15 m in height) with tuberous roots; young stems are green, hairy, square in cross-section, becoming brown and more rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green, somewhat hairy, simple, variable in shape from triangular with broad heart-shaped bases to egg-shaped with broad end at base (8–22 cm long and 3–15 cm wide), margins entire to irregularly toothed or with irregular pointed lobes, held opposite each other on stems.
Flowers: Pale-blue, violet or mauve with pale yellow or whitish throat, trumpet-shaped (3–8 cm long and 6–8 cm across), on elongated clusters; each flower on a stalk (4.5 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) with a rounded base (18 mm long and 13 mm wide) and a long tapered beak (2–5 cm long and about 7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Plantations, forest, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/ gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
This climber completely smothers other established plant species and prevents the regeneration of native species in invaded areas (Starr et al., 2003b). T. grandiflora has a heavy and extensive tuberous root system which can lead to riverbank destabilization and damage fences and building foundations (Motooka et al., 2003). In Queensland, Australia, it is having a negative impact on threatened lowland tropical rainforest that have been fragmented by agricultural and urban development (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007). It also climbs on to power lines causing power outages.
 

Source:

Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018

file icon Piper aduncumhot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 440
PEPPER FAMILY
Piperaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bamboo piper, false matico, jointwood, piper
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree (6–8 m tall), with short stilt roots, often in thickets, branches are erect, but with drooping twigs and swollen, purplish nodes, foliage and twigs aromatic. Bark: Yellow-green, finely hairy stems and enlarged, ringed nodes.
Leaves: Green, softly hairy beneath, broadly sword- to oval-shaped (13–25 cm long and 3.5–8 cm wide), tapering into long tips with the base asymmetric, short leaf stalks.
Flowers: Yellowish, tiny, in long curving spikes opposite the leaves.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green, small, egg-shaped, compressed into greyish, worm-like spikes.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, spice and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps, lowlands and riparian zones.
 
IMPACTS
P. aduncum establishes dense stands which shade out native species and prevent forest regeneration. In field surveys in Papua New Guinea, it was found to be present in all garden plots, 92% of riverine plots, 80% of young secondary and 65% of old secondary forest plots, and 75% of the gaps (Leps et al., 2002). In regenerating areas, P. aduncum sometimes attained a canopy cover of 75% and suppressed the native species which local communities utilized extensively in the past (Leps et al., 2002). In the Pacific, it is accidentally harvested with kava (Piper methysticum G. Forst), an important crop, lowering its quality. It also competes with kava and other crops and may act as a host for kava pests and pathogensm (Plant Protection Service, 2001). It consumes large quantities of water, drying out the soil, and absorbs significant amounts of nutrients to the detriment of crops.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: goatweed, invading ageratum, Mexican ageratum
Indonesia: badotan, wedusan
Lao PDR: nya khiu
Myanmar: kayin-ma-pau-poo, khwe-thay-paw
Philippines: baho-baho, bolas-bolas, budbuda, kanding-kanding, kolokong-kabayo, singilan, tuway-tuway
Thailand: saapraeng saapkaa, yaa suap raeng
Viet Nam: cây cut lon
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual herb with fluffy flowerheads with green, purplish or reddish stems [0.3-1 (1.5) m tall] covered in short white hairs on young parts and nodes; shallow fibrous roots.
Leaves: Bright green, sparsely hairy, rough with prominent veins, triangular to egg-shaped (20-100 mm long and 5-50 mm wide) margins bluntly toothed with blunt or pointed tips, in opposite pairs, hairy petioles (5-75 mm); characteristic odour when crushed smelling like a male goat.
Flowers: Blue to lavender, sometimes with a white head in compact terminal flowerheads bearing 4–18 flowerheads (4–5mm across and 4–6 mm long), with slender, hardly exserted styles as opposed to its congener A. houstonianum, which has longer and thicker exserted styles in heads that are about 6–9 mm accross; slightly aromatic.
Fruits: Brown and one-seeded.
 
ORIGIN
Central and South America and West Indies.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, croplands, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, grasslands, natural pasture, riparian areas, lowlands, wetlands and coastal dunes.
 
IMPACTS
This weed is allelopathic and as a result readily displaces native plant species. It excludes native grasses and medicinally important plants, reduces native plant abundance and creates homogenous monospecific
stands (Dogra et al. 2009). In Hawaii in threatens the survival of native species including Brighamia insignis (Centre for Plant Conservation, 2004, in CABI, 2016). It causes yield reductions of major staple crops in
India, and invades rangelands displacing native grasses and as a result reducing the amount of available forage. It also reduces crop yields, and is an important alternate host of a number of economically important crop pathogens and nematodes. In Tigray, Ethiopia, accidental consumption of the seeds with sorghum grains was implicated in the cause of liver disease resulting in the deaths of 27 people and numerous livestock.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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