Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Syngonium podophyllumhot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 843
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: arrowhead vine, African evergreen, goosefoot plant, American evergreen
Indonesia: Keladi-keladian
Philippines: kamay-Kastila
Viet Nam: Tróc bac, trau bà trang
 
DESCRIPTION
Rampant evergreen climber or creeping plant reaching 5-10 m when climbing over trees; young stems bluish-green, hairless, smooth, fleshy, contain milky sap, roots develop at stem joints; older stems pale brown, woody (1.5-2.5 cm thick) with aerial roots.
Leaves: Vary in colour with lower leaves dark green or with silverywhite veins and upper leaves light or dark green with no markings, all hairless with margins entire, paler undersides and on stalks (15-60 cm long) which are partly grooved; lower leaves are heart-shaped or shaped like an arrow-head (7-14 cm long) with pointed tips; intermediate leaves larger with spreading lobes; upper leaves (12-38 cm long and 16-17 cm wide) divided into three segments or leaflets.
Flowers: Whitish spikes (4-11) (5-9 cm long and 7-15 mm wide) partially enclosed in a white to greenish modified leaf (9-11 cm long), held in upper leaf forks on stalks (up to 13 cm long).
Fruits: Red to reddish-orange merging into one larger fruit, turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (3.5-7 cm long and 1.5-3.5 cm wide), usually hidden.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Climbs up into shrubs and tree shading out native vegetation and in so doing reducing native plant diversity and abundance. It has the ability to invade intact forests covering the forest floor and climbing into large and well established native trees, often causing canopy collapse due to the weight of the large stems (Space and Flynn, 2000; (Morgan et al., 2004). In Florida it is displacing a host of native plants including rare ferns (Possley, 2004). In Belize, it has invaded citrus orchards competing with trees for water and nutrients (Tzul, undated). The thick mats also harbour snakes endangering labourers working in orchards (Tzul, undated). S. podophyllum may also cause mild to severe poisoning if ingested (Morgan et al., 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Merremia peltatahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 838
MORNING GLORY FAMILY
Convolvulaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: merremia
Indonesia: mantangan
Malaysia: akar sambaing
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen robust vine or climber, with large subterranean tubers; stems smooth (up to 30 m high) emitting a milky latex when damaged.
Leaves: Green, hairless above, purple veins below with scattered hairs, simple, almost round but abruptly tapering to a sharp point (7.5–30 cm long and 7–20 cm wide), held alternately on stems, leaf stalk attached to the underside of the leaf blade instead of at its base or margin (3–24 cm long).
Flowers: Usually white, funnel-shaped, large (5–6 cm wide), in clusters on stalks (15–30 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) (15 mm long), splitting into many valves; seeds brown.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain but assumed to be native to Pemba, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, northern Australia and eastwards into Polynesia to the Society Islands. Different biotype may be invasive in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Indonesia.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, land restoration and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps and woodland edges/gaps.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation to the detriment of plant and animal life. In Vanuatu, it is considered to be one of the most important weeds of plantation forestry and is one of two major specie sthreatening natural regeneration in logged or disturbed areas (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In Indonesia, it also inhibits and/or prevents the movement of threatened and rare species such as elephants, rhinos and tigers.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Spathodea campanulatahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 831
JACARANDA FAMILY
Bignoniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: fireball, flame tree, fountain tree, Nandi flame, Nile flame, tulip tree
Cambodia: angkie dei chmool
Indonesia: pohon hujan
Viet Nam: cây hoa tuylip châu phi
 
DESCRIPTION
Large, upright tree [10–15 (–35) m tall] with trunk up to 170 cm in diameter with a dense wide crown; younger branches are almost hairless or have a sparse covering of short hairs, older branches thick with small white-coloured corky spots; shoots, buds and branchlets covered in yellow-brown hairs, slightly buttressed; sheds leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Pale, grey-brown, smooth, rough with age.
Leaves: Green, yellow-brown soft hairs on underside, large, oncedivided (50 cm long) with (7–) 11–15 (–17) broadly oval or eggshaped leaflets with base rounded and gradually tapering towards the end (15 cm long and 7.5 cm wide), margins entire, 2–3 glands at base of each leaflet, leaves oppositely arranged on stalks that are up to 6 cm long.
Flowers: Orange, showy, tulip-shaped, in dense clusters (8–10 cm long) on long stalks (10 cm long) at the end of branches, individual flower stalks short and covered in brownish hairs; there is a yellow-flowering variety.
Fruits: Pod-like (several-seeded dry fruit that splits open at maturity), green changing to brown as they mature, elongated (17–30 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo,Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Togo.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, carving, medicine, bee forage, erosion control, mulch, windbreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, forest edges/gaps and riparian areas.
 
IMPACTS
Native plants are displaced by the shading effect of the large leaves, resulting in reduced biodiversity under tree canopies (Weber, 2003). In surveys in Fiji, respondents claimed that the African tulip tree competes with crops, reduces the amount of land available for grazing livestock and leads to the loss of more desirable trees that are used for medicinal purposes and/or firewood (Brown and Daigneault, 2014). It is a weed of coffee plantations in Cuba, reducing yields (Herrera-Isla et al., 2002).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Panicum repenshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 820
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bullet grass, couch panicum, creeping panic grass, quack grass, torpedograss
Cambodia: smau phluk
Indonesia: rumput lampuyangan
Philippines: luya-luyahan, pagudpel, parayparay
Viet Nam: co gung, co cua gà, co ong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass with culms (flowering stem) (1 m in height) arising from long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips.
Leaves: Green, linear, flat or folded (7–25 cm long and 2–8 mm wide) with a whitish, waxy covering; leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) hairless or hairy, with hairs usually restricted to the upper margins; ligule (thin outgrowth at junction of the leaf and leaf stalk) is membranous with short hairs.
Flowers: Branched, open inflorescences (7–22 cm long) with 1–3 branchlets per node.
 
ORIGIN
Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Greece and Italy in Europe.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Forage
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, lowlands, floodplains, wetlands, gullies,lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native vegetation, particularly in or near shallow waters. It is also a serious weed in a wide range of perennial crops including sugarcane in Taiwan and Hawaii; pineapple in West Africa; tea in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka; various orchard crops in Thailand; rubber, coconut and oil palm in Malaysia; and rice in Indonesia and Sri Lanka (Holm et al., 1977). In Taiwan, rhizome density can reach 15 tons per hectare, while a density of 5 tons per hectare can result in a 50% reduction in sugarcane yield (Peng and Sze, 1974). P. repens may act as an alternative host to the rice leafhopper (Holm et al., 1977).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Brachiaria muticahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 816
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffalo grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, Mauritius signal grass, para grass, Scotch grass
Cambodia: smau barang
Indonesia: jukut inggris, rumput malela, sukut kolonjono
Thailand: ya khon
Viet Nam: co lông tây, co lông para
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass, stoloniferous [creeping or trailing stem (culm) that grows above ground for part of its length, rooting at the nodes], culms (grass stem) up to 5 m long with upright portion tall [0.9–2 (–3) m high], sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) are hairy.
Leaves: Green, moderately hairy (15–30 cm long and 3–20 mm wide).
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (10–25 cm long and 5–10 cm wide) with 5–20 branchlets (each 2–13 cm long), each with many almost hairless flower spikelets (2.5–3.5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Sub-Saharan Africa
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder and erosion control
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, drainage ditches, lowlands, swamps, wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands replacing native wetland plants and interfering with aquatic ecosystems. Para grass chokes streams and wetlands, slowing water flow and increasing sedimentation (Arthington et al., 1983; Humphries et al., 1994; Bunn et al., 1998). In North Queensland, Australia, infestations reduced channel discharge capacity by 85% (Bunn et al., 1998) increasing the frequency and intensity of floods. Poor drainage (excessive waterlogging) can also reduce sugarcane yields by up to A $100,000 per property per annum in coastal North Queensland, Australia. In the Babinda area, Australia, cane growers spend an estimated A $23,000 each year on herbicide to control para grass in drainage ditches (Fisk, 1991). Infestations can also affect nesting habits and feeding areas for waterfowl (Humphries et al., 1994). For example, it is destroying the breeding habitat of the magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata Latham) and contributing to the decline of the endangered yellow chat (Epthianura crocea tunneyi Mathews) in the Alligator River floodplain in the Northern Territory, Australia. Infestations also increase the frequency and intensity of fires contributing to further biodiversity loss. Para grass is an alternative host for a number of agriculturally important pests and diseases (Holm et al., 1991).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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