Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Antigonon leptopushot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 1411
KNOTWEED FAMILY
Polygonaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bride’s tears, chain of love, coral bells, coral creeper, love vine
Indonesia: bunga air mata pengantin
Malaysia: bunga berteh, bunga bonet
Philippines: cadena de amor, kantutay
Thailand: phuang-chomphuu
Viet Nam: hoa ti-gôn
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen climber or vine with tendrils, angular stems [6–10 (–15 m long]; hairless or with young shoots covered in brownish or reddish hairs; older stems brown and woody near base; underground tubers.
Leaves: Light green on upper surface, pale green below, membranous, conspicuous network of veins, heart-shaped or triangular (2.5–15 cm long and 2–10 cm wide), margins entire, wavy or bluntly toothed with pointed tips, leaf stalks 1–5 cm long, slightly winged.
Flowers: Bright pink, sometimes white, in clusters (4–20 cm long) at the tips of branches, tips of clusters ending in a short tendril. Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown, cone-shaped or three-angled (8–12 mm long and 4–7 mm wide), covered in the papery remains of the flower ‘petals.’
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and coastal sand dunes.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native trees, out-competes understorey plants and alters fire regimes (Langeland et al., 2008; USDA-NRCS, 2011). On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), it is ‘rampant on sea and inland cliffs and in previously mined areas where it may be hampering the annual migration of crabs and interfering with natural regeneration’ (Swarbrick and Hart, 2000). It has been estimated to cover 20% of the island of Saint Eustatius (Caribbean) (Ernst and Ketner, 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Syngonium podophyllumhot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1374
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: arrowhead vine, African evergreen, goosefoot plant, American evergreen
Indonesia: Keladi-keladian
Philippines: kamay-Kastila
Viet Nam: Tróc bac, trau bà trang
 
DESCRIPTION
Rampant evergreen climber or creeping plant reaching 5-10 m when climbing over trees; young stems bluish-green, hairless, smooth, fleshy, contain milky sap, roots develop at stem joints; older stems pale brown, woody (1.5-2.5 cm thick) with aerial roots.
Leaves: Vary in colour with lower leaves dark green or with silverywhite veins and upper leaves light or dark green with no markings, all hairless with margins entire, paler undersides and on stalks (15-60 cm long) which are partly grooved; lower leaves are heart-shaped or shaped like an arrow-head (7-14 cm long) with pointed tips; intermediate leaves larger with spreading lobes; upper leaves (12-38 cm long and 16-17 cm wide) divided into three segments or leaflets.
Flowers: Whitish spikes (4-11) (5-9 cm long and 7-15 mm wide) partially enclosed in a white to greenish modified leaf (9-11 cm long), held in upper leaf forks on stalks (up to 13 cm long).
Fruits: Red to reddish-orange merging into one larger fruit, turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (3.5-7 cm long and 1.5-3.5 cm wide), usually hidden.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Climbs up into shrubs and tree shading out native vegetation and in so doing reducing native plant diversity and abundance. It has the ability to invade intact forests covering the forest floor and climbing into large and well established native trees, often causing canopy collapse due to the weight of the large stems (Space and Flynn, 2000; (Morgan et al., 2004). In Florida it is displacing a host of native plants including rare ferns (Possley, 2004). In Belize, it has invaded citrus orchards competing with trees for water and nutrients (Tzul, undated). The thick mats also harbour snakes endangering labourers working in orchards (Tzul, undated). S. podophyllum may also cause mild to severe poisoning if ingested (Morgan et al., 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Brachiaria muticahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1349
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffalo grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, Mauritius signal grass, para grass, Scotch grass
Cambodia: smau barang
Indonesia: jukut inggris, rumput malela, sukut kolonjono
Thailand: ya khon
Viet Nam: co lông tây, co lông para
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass, stoloniferous [creeping or trailing stem (culm) that grows above ground for part of its length, rooting at the nodes], culms (grass stem) up to 5 m long with upright portion tall [0.9–2 (–3) m high], sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) are hairy.
Leaves: Green, moderately hairy (15–30 cm long and 3–20 mm wide).
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (10–25 cm long and 5–10 cm wide) with 5–20 branchlets (each 2–13 cm long), each with many almost hairless flower spikelets (2.5–3.5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Sub-Saharan Africa
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder and erosion control
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, drainage ditches, lowlands, swamps, wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands replacing native wetland plants and interfering with aquatic ecosystems. Para grass chokes streams and wetlands, slowing water flow and increasing sedimentation (Arthington et al., 1983; Humphries et al., 1994; Bunn et al., 1998). In North Queensland, Australia, infestations reduced channel discharge capacity by 85% (Bunn et al., 1998) increasing the frequency and intensity of floods. Poor drainage (excessive waterlogging) can also reduce sugarcane yields by up to A $100,000 per property per annum in coastal North Queensland, Australia. In the Babinda area, Australia, cane growers spend an estimated A $23,000 each year on herbicide to control para grass in drainage ditches (Fisk, 1991). Infestations can also affect nesting habits and feeding areas for waterfowl (Humphries et al., 1994). For example, it is destroying the breeding habitat of the magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata Latham) and contributing to the decline of the endangered yellow chat (Epthianura crocea tunneyi Mathews) in the Alligator River floodplain in the Northern Territory, Australia. Infestations also increase the frequency and intensity of fires contributing to further biodiversity loss. Para grass is an alternative host for a number of agriculturally important pests and diseases (Holm et al., 1991).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Merremia peltatahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1320
MORNING GLORY FAMILY
Convolvulaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: merremia
Indonesia: mantangan
Malaysia: akar sambaing
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen robust vine or climber, with large subterranean tubers; stems smooth (up to 30 m high) emitting a milky latex when damaged.
Leaves: Green, hairless above, purple veins below with scattered hairs, simple, almost round but abruptly tapering to a sharp point (7.5–30 cm long and 7–20 cm wide), held alternately on stems, leaf stalk attached to the underside of the leaf blade instead of at its base or margin (3–24 cm long).
Flowers: Usually white, funnel-shaped, large (5–6 cm wide), in clusters on stalks (15–30 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) (15 mm long), splitting into many valves; seeds brown.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain but assumed to be native to Pemba, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, northern Australia and eastwards into Polynesia to the Society Islands. Different biotype may be invasive in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Indonesia.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, land restoration and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps and woodland edges/gaps.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation to the detriment of plant and animal life. In Vanuatu, it is considered to be one of the most important weeds of plantation forestry and is one of two major specie sthreatening natural regeneration in logged or disturbed areas (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In Indonesia, it also inhibits and/or prevents the movement of threatened and rare species such as elephants, rhinos and tigers.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Limnocharis flavahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1267
WATER POPPY FAMILY
Limnocharitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bur head, limnocharis, sawah lettuce, velvetleaf, yellow burrhead
Cambodia: trakiet paong
Indonesia: bangeng, eceng, enceng, berek, gunda, genjer
Lao PDR: kaanz choong
Malaysia: jinjir, paku rawan
Thailand: bon cheen, bonchin, nangkwak, talapatrusi, taalapat ruesee
Viet Nam: cây cù nèo, kèo nèo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen clump-forming, aquatic, herbaceous, rooted to the ground and emerges above the water surface (20–120 cm tall); large fleshy leaves borne in clusters along a short thick erect stem (about 3 cm long and 3 cm wide), contains a milky sap.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, triangular to rounded (5–30 cm long and 4–25 cm wide), margins entire or wavy, borne on long three-angled (triangular) stalks (5–90 cm long).
Flowers: Yellow, in clusters containing 2–15 flowers at the top of three-angled stalks (20–120 cm long).
Fruits: Rounded ‘capsules’ (15–20 mm across), that split up into several floating segments when mature.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, water courses, floodplains, swamps, wetlands and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Dominates invaded water bodies displacing other aquatic plant and animal species. It has become a serious weed in rice paddies and chokes irrigation and drainage canals (Waterhouse, 2003) facilitating siltation and reducing water discharge capacity (Kotalawala, 1976). In some cases, infestations are so severe leading to the abandonment of rice fields. Invaded areas also provide ideal breeding grounds for disease vectors such as mosquitoes, contributing to the spread of diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever (Abhilash et al., 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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