Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Charybdis japonicahot!Tooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 199

SYSTEM

Marine, Terrestrial

COMMON NAMES

English: Asian crab, paddle crab, Asian paddle crab, swimming crab, blue crab

DESCRIPTION
 
Charybdis japonica have a carapace width of up to 12cm (Gust et al. 2003). They have a pilose (hairy) carapace (although amount of hair varies to little or none). The carapace has ridges with six frontal teeth, triangular and sharp. The inner supraorbital lobe is broadly triangular (Smith et al. 2003). Wee and Ng (1995) record the colour of C. japonica in Japan as mottled cream and purple. In the Waitemata harbour (New  Zealand) specimens varied from pale green and off-white, through olive green to a deep chestnut with purplish markings on the carapace and upper surfaces of the appendages (Smith et al. 2003). In addition, most Waitemata specimens have yellow-orange markings, some with only a hint of yellow-orange and some with very noticeable brown-orange on parts of the carapace and the legs, especially on the chelae where the upper colouration grades into the white to off-white ventral surfaces (Smith et al. 2003).

NATIVE RANGE

ASEAN: Malaysia, Thailand
World: China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Taiwan

KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE

New Zealand
 
PATHWAY
 
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water
 

REASON FOR INTRODUCTION

The paddle crab may have been introduced from ship ballast water (Gust et al. 2003). This is known to be a potential route of spread of the Asian paddle crab.

IMPACTS
 
Disease transmission is one of the key potential impacts of the paddle crab in introduced environments. C. japonica is known to be a host or carrier of the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) (Maeda et al. 1998, in Potential next pests 2003). WSSV is a serious fisheries threat as it infects a broad spectrum of crustaceans, and can cause cumulative mortalities of up to 100% within 3 to 10 days from the first sign of disease
(Lightner 1996, in Potential next pests 2003).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Charybdis japonica. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1044 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Channa argusTooltip 04/07/2020 Hits: 86
SYSTEM
Freshwater
 
COMMON NAMES
English: northern snakehead; amur snakehead; eastern snakehead; ocellated snakehead
 
DESCRIPTION
The body of snakeheads is torpedo-shaped, which tapers towards the tail. They have a single, long dorsal fin, a long anal fin, and a small head with a large mouth (Cudmore & Mandrak 2006). Northern snakeheads are cylindrical fish that can grow up to 85 centimeters in length (Okada 1960, in Courtenay and Williams, 2004) however, in Russia there have been reports of captured specimens reaching 1.5 meters total length (Courtenay and Williams 2004). As the name implies, the scaled head of the fish looks like a snake; they have a large mouth with sharp teeth, a truncated, not rounded tail and are easily identified by dark irregular blotches along their sides (Sea Grant Pennsylvania 2007) on a background of golden tan to pale brown. This fish is capable of darkening its background colors to the point of almost obscuring the blotches. There is a dark stripe from just behind the eye to the upper edge of the operculum with another dark stripe below from behind the orbit extending to the lower quadrant of the operculum. Coloration of juveniles is virtually the same as in adults, a characteristic atypical for many snakehead species.
 
NATIVE RANGE
WORLD: China; Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of; Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Cambodia; Thailand; Viet Nam
WORLD: Canada; Czech Republic; Hong Kong; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Republic Of; Nigeria; Slovakia; Turkmenistan; United States; Uzbekistan
 
PATHWAY
Release - Fishery in the wild; Release in nature for use
Escape - Live food and live baits; Pet/aquarium/terrarium species
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
The northern snakehead is a popular aquarium fish in Europe and Japan, however, because of their highly predacious nature snakeheads have not had a large following of interested hobbyists in the USA (Courtenay & Williams 2004). Some introductions are believed to be the result of intentional release of aquarium fish as they are very expensive to feed and soon outgrow their aquaria (Courtenay & Williams 2004). Many introductions of the northern snakehead are believed to be the result of intentional release of fish obtained from the live food trade (Courtenay & Williams 2004). The northern snakehead has been a market leader and is cultured in China and Korea (Courtenay & Williams 2004). This species has been exported to other nations, including Canada and the United States where it has been sold alive in certain ethnic markets and restaurants (Courtenay & Williams 2004).The northern snakehead is introduced to many locations for culture as a sport fish (Courtenay & Williams 2004).Many introductions of the northern snakehead are believed to be the result of intentional release of fish obtained from the live food trade (Courtenay & Williams 2004). The northern snakehead has been a market leader and is cultured in China and Korea (Courtenay & Williams 2004). This species has been exported to other nations, including Canada and the United States where it has been sold alive in certain ethnic markets and restaurants (Courtenay & Williams 2004). IMPACTS The cold temperate northern snakehead (Channa argus) is found in areas in Russia, China and Korea. It is known for its voracious predation of other fish species, ability to withstand freezing and ability to tolerate lack of water for up to four days.
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Channa argus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Channa+argus on 07-04-2020.
file icon Cestrum aurantiacumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 451
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: orange cestrum, orange jessamine, yellow cestrum.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, much-branched, half-climbing shrub [1–2 (–6m) high], sparsely hairy stems and leaves; stems and leaves bruise easily, emitting an unpleasant smell.
Leaves: Light green, hairless, oval to egg-shaped (7–13 cm long and 2.5–7 cm wide), leaf stalk 1–4 cm long.
Flowers: Orange-yellow, tubular (17–21 mm long), 10–15 in axillary and terminal clusters.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), white, spongy, round, small (10 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Guatemala and probably elsewhere in Central America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, savannah, riversides and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Readily ‘climbs’ into trees and over shrubs, smothering native vegetation and impoverishing biodiversity. In Kenya, C. aurantiacum has invaded over 4,000 hectares of the Cherangany Forest displacing valuable forage species. It is toxic to people and to livestock and has caused numerous cattle deaths. Cattle that have consumed the plant become tetchy, before becoming paralysed and dying. The unripe berries are also fatal if consumed by sheep, and its leaves lead to non-fatal poisoning (Bizimana, 1994). According to the community in Cherangany Forest, the species has also had a negative impact on bee populations.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
 
file icon Cenchrus echinatushot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1159
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffel grass, bur grass, field sandbur, hedgehog grass, Mossman river grass
Indonesia: rumput daratan
Philippines: agingay, madiyong-madiyong, sagisi, rukut-dukut
Thailand: yaa son krachap, ya-bung
Viet Nam: co echin
 
DESCRIPTION
Short-lived, tufted grass with often branched stems (culms) (25–60 cm tall), hairless nodes, roots occasionally produced at the lowest joints.
Leaves: Green, sheath (tubular structure that clasps stem) partially encloses stem, usually hairless but sometimes with a few hairs, reddish or purplish on young plants and lower stems; blades are linear (5–25 cm long and 3–12 mm wide), narrowing to a point, some hairs along margins.
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (3–10 cm long and 1–1.3 cm wide).
Fruits: Burr-like structures in inflorescence (4–10 mm long), each with many sharp spines (2–5 mm long), reddish or purplish-green when young turning straw-coloured or dark brown; ‘burs’ contain seeds which are brown and have a flattened tip.
 
ORIGIN
Mexico and southern USA
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, fallow land, crops, managed pasture, gardens, grassland and sandy soils along the coast.
 
IMPACTS
Can readily establish large monocultures to the detriment of native plant species and the organisms that depend on them. On Laysan Island, Hawaii, it displaced the native bunchgrass, Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich) Steud., and in so doing, reduced important breeding sites for two endemic, endangered land birds, the Laysan finch [Telespiza cantans (Wilson)], and the Laysan duck [Anas laysanensis Rothschild], as well as several species of indigenous seabirds and terrestrial arthropods (Flint and Rehkemper, 2002). The burs are apparently also dangerous for hatchlings of seabirds on the Northwestern Islands (Motooka et al., 2003). Burs in animal feed can also reduce their acceptability and palatability. Buffel grass is also a serious agricultural weed of orchards, vineyards, coffee, vegetables, bananas and coconuts. Crops competing for nutrients with C. echinatus typically have smaller leaf areas and lower growth rates and yields (Hammerton, 1981; Everaarts, 1993; Ramos and Pitelli, 1994). C. echinatus is also an alternative host for maize streak monogeminivirus and sugarcane streak monogeminivirus (Brunt et al., 1996).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Cardiospermum halicacabumhot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 956
SOAPBERRY FAMILY
Sapindaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: heart pea, heart seed, lesser balloon vine, love in a puff
Cambodia: am baeng baek, peng poh sraom, puos am baeng
Indonesia: paria gunung
Philippines: bangkolon, kana, paspalya
Viet Nam: cây tam phong
 
DESCRIPTION
Herbaceous or slightly woody evergreen climber [up to 1–3 (–6) m high] with tendrils (slender, usually twisting structure which aids ‘climbing’); grooved stems.
Leaves: Bright green, hairless or covered in minute hairs, compound, leaflets arranged in three sets of three, narrow and tapering to a point (3–5 cm long), side leaflets smaller, margins with deep and sharp forward-pointing projections or teeth.
Flowers: White or yellow (2–3 mm long), in a few-flowered, open clusters, on long stalks (5–10 cm long); two (2 cm long) paired tendrils just below inflorescence.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, membranous inflated, nearly globular (25–30 mm long); seeds black, round, with a kidney-shaped white spot.
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in Africa; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in South America; and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, crops, plantations, gardens, forest edges/gaps, riparian areas, swamps and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Balloon vine smothers native vegetation, depriving it of sunlight and in so doing displaces native plant species. In Brazil, where C. halicacabum is considered to be native, it can reducesoybean crop yields by up to 26%(Brighenti et al., 2003; Dempsey, 2011). In Texas, there is also concern that it may contaminate certified soybean seeds since both seeds are similar in size and shape (Hurst, 1980). It is also considered to be a pest in sorghum, rice and oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia (Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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