Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Bidens pilosahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 238
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: black jack, beggar’s tick, broom stick, cobbler’s pegs, Spanish needle
Indonesia: ajeran
Lao PDR: pak kwan cham
Myanmar: moat-so-ma-hlan, ta-se-urt
Philippines: borburtak, enwad, kaperek, nguwad, puriket, pisau-pisau, tubak-tubak
Thailand: puen nok sai
Viet Nam: xuyen chi
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or evergreen erect herb (up to 1 m tall), hairless stems, fourangled, purplish green in colour, simple or branched.
Leaves: Green, compound with 3–5 leaflets each; leaflets variable but usually egg-shaped with a broader and rounded base tapering towards the end to spear-shaped [3–7 (–10) cm long and 1–2 (–5) cm wide], margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth, terminal leaflet always larger than lateral (side) ones.
Flowers: White petals, centre yellow (7–8 mm wide), usually borne singly on stalks (1 cm long).
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, slender (1.5 mm long), ribbed, 2–4 barbed bristles or awns at terminal end.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wastelands, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens, drainage ditches, forest edges/ gaps, woodlands, riversides, lowlands, floodplains and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Under favourable conditions a single plant can produce 3,000–6,000 seeds per year, with 3–4 generations annually. This, together with its allelopathic properties, allows it to form dense stands rapidly, displacing
native vegetation. In Southeast Asia, this weed is problematic for those growing cabbage, pineapple, guava and plantation crops (Waterhouse, 1993). Densities of eight blackjack plants per square metre, in soybean
fields in Argentina, reduced yields by 43% (Arce et al., 1995). Dry bean harvests in Uganda and Peru were reduced by 48% and 18–48%, respectively, as a result of the presence of B. pilosa. B. pilosa is also a
host and vector to harmful parasites such as root knot nematodes and tomato spotted wilt virus (Mvere, 2004; DPI, 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Leucaena leucocephalahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 238
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Sub-family: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: jumbie bean, lead tree, leucaena, wild tamarind
Cambodia: khtum tehs, krathum thet
Indonesia: petai cina
Lao PDR: kathin;kh’oonz, koong khaaw
Malaysia: lamtoro, petai belalang
Philippines: bayani, komkompitis, loyloy, palomaria
Thailand: kra thin, to-bao
Viet Nam: cây keo dau
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thornless shrub or small tree [2–10 (15) m high]; young stems green and densely covered in greyish-coloured hairs.
Bark: Smooth, greyish-brown with numerous small raised spots.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided [0.7–15 (–35) cm long] with small raised structure (gland) usually on leaf stalk, 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets, each 2–10 cm long and each bearing 5–22 pairs of leaflets that are somewhat elongated, almost parallel sided or swordshaped (7–21 mm long and 1.5–5 mm wide).
Flowers: White or pale yellow in globular clusters (12–30 mm across), borne singly or in groups of 2–3 located at the juncture of the leaf and stem.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown or reddish brown as they mature, elongated, almost straight (8–18 cm long and 2 cm wide), flattened but raised over the seeds, pointed tips; containing 10–25 hard seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Guatemala and Mexico.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, tannins, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands and coastal shrub.
 
IMPACTS
Forms large monocultures displacing native plant and animal species. In Hawaii, it is outcompeting open forest species (Cronk and Fuller, 1995), while on the Brazilian island of Fernando de Noronha, it impacts endemic flora. The invasion of leucaena has had a severe effect on the native plant community in the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, and may alter secondary succession, promoting the invasion and establishment of more aggressive alien plant species (Yoshida and Oka, 2004). In Guam, leucaena is preventing the establishment of indigenous species (B. Lawrence, pers. comm., in Walton, 2003). In Vanuatu, it can form dense monospecific thickets, threatening native plant species and is ‘very difficult to eradicate once established, rendering extensive areas unusable and inaccessible’ (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In the Erap Valley of Papua New Guinea, it forms monospecific stands in river valleys, replacing native riparian vegetation (G. Werren, pers. comm., in Walton, 2003).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Mimosa pigrahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 237
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Sub-family: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bashful bush, black mimosa, giant mimosa, giant sensitive plant
Cambodia: banla uyyas, banla yuon, deoum klab yeik; Indonesia: ki kerbau, putri malu
Malaysia: kembang gajah, semalu gajah
Thailand: maiyaraap ton, mai yah raap yak
Viet Nam: trinh nu thân go, trinh nu dam lay
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree (3–6 m high), forming dense thickets, young stems green, rounded, armed with scattered prickles (5–12 mm long), taproot is 1–2 m deep.
Bark: Older stems grey and woody.
Leaves: Yellowish-green, with short fine hairs below, twice-divided (20–31 cm long), straight thorn at the junction of each of the 6–16 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each branchlet with 20–45 pairs of small elongated leaflets (3–12 mm long and 0.5–2 mm wide), leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Pink or mauve, in fluffy round heads (1–2 cm wide), borne singly or in groups of two or three, on stalks (2–7 cm long), arising from each upper leaf fork.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flat and elongated (3–12 cm long and 7–14 mm wide), covered in bristly hairs, borne in clusters (1–30), break transversely into 14–26 segments; seeds greenish-brown to light brown (4–6 mm long and 2–2.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Green manure, nitrogen fixation, medicine, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, riversides, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake edges and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations of M. pigra contribute to a decline in abundance and diversity of species of plants and animals. In Tram Chim National Park, Vietnam, it has reduced the density of native plant species threatening the vulnerable sarus crane (Grus antigone L.) (Triet and Dung, 2001). M. pigra thickets in Australia had fewer plants, birds and lizards, than native vegetation (Braithwaite et al., 1989). In Lochinvar National Park, Zambia, infestations reduced bird diversity by almost 50% and abundance by more than 95% (Shanungu, 2009). In Cambodia, farmers ranked mimosa as the most significant problem affecting rice farming, ‘ahead of pests, rodents, and drought problems’ (Chamroeun et al., 2002). M. pigra also hampers fishing activities and prevents access to water bodies.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Mimosa pudicahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 236
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: common sensitive plant, shame plant, sleeping grass, touchme-not
Cambodia: preah klab sampeahs, preah khlab, sampeahs
Indonesia: putri malu, sikejut
Lao PDR: nya nyoub
Myanmar: tee-kayone
Philippines: babain, bain-bain, hibi-hibi, torog-torog
Thailand: yaa pan yot
Viet Nam: cây xau ho, co trinh nu
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen prickly herbaceous plant or small shrub, creeping or sprawling [15–50 (–100) cm high]; stems reddish-brown to purplish, round, sparse prickles (2–2.5 mm long).
Leaves: Yellowish-green, sparsely hairy, twice-divided, 1–2 pairs of leaflet branchlets (2.5–8 cm long) each bearing 10–25 pairs of elongated leaflets with almost parallel sides (6–15 mm long and 1–3 mm wide), margins entire, borne on stalks (1.5–6 cm long), leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Lilac or pink in fluffy round heads or clusters (9–15 mm across) held on bristly stalks (1–4 cm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, elongated with almost parallel sides, flattened (1–2.5 cm long and 3–6 mm wide), held in clusters covered in bristles, prickles along their margins, break transversely into segments; seeds are light brown, flattened (2.5–3 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, tannins, forage for bees, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, gardens, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, wetlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Is a fire hazard and poses a significant threat to native flora. It is a serious pest of crops and pastures throughout the tropics (Holm et al., 1979). Infestations of M. pudica can lead to a 10–70% reduction in upland rice yields in Kerala, India (Joseph and Bridgit, 1993). It is also considered a serious weed of sugarcane, sorghum, maize, soybean (Holm et al., 1977), tomatoes, pineapples, cotton (Lee Soo Ann, 1976; Waterhouse and Norris, 1987), rubber, tea, coffee, coconut, oil palm, banana, mango, papaya, citrus and even Acacia mangium plantations in Indonesia (Nazif, 1993). Mimosa also invades pasture and can be toxic to livestock. It is suspected of poisoning cattle in Papua New Guinea (Henty and Pritchard, 1975) and has caused stunted growth in chickens in Indonesia (Kostermans et al., 1987).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Solanum viarumhot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 235
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: tropical soda apple
Viet Nam: cà trái vàng
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect herb [50–150 (–200) cm tall], with densely hairy stems and branches with recurved (2–5 mm long) and straight spines (up to 20 mm long) on the leaf stalks and the leaf veins.
Leaves: Dark green, glossy above, duller below, hairy, simple, broadly egg-shaped [6–20 cm long and 6–15 cm wide], bluntly lobed, with spines on the veins and hairs on both sides, leaf stalks are 3–7 cm long with prickles. Flowers: White (1.5 cm across), in clusters of 1–5.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), mottled light and dark green becoming pale yellow as they mature, smooth (2–3 cm across), containing 400 brown seeds (2–3 mm in diameter).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Grassland, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands displace other plant species by crowding or shading them out. The prickles on the plants reduce wildlife forage and prevent movement of animals through invaded areas (USDA-FS, 2005). The foliage and stems are unpalatable to cattle, considerably reducing livestock-carrying capacities (Medal et al., 2012). Control costs of S. viarum to ranchers in Florida were estimated at US$ 6.5–16 million per year (Thomas, 2007). It has also caused poisoning of goats in Florida (Porter et al., 2003). It is an alternative host for many plant diseases including the cucumber mosaic virus, gemini virus, potato leafroll virus, potato virus Y, tobacco etch virus, tomato mosaic virus, tomato mottle virus and the fungal pathogen, Alternaria solani (Cooke, 1997). It is also a host for a number of insect pests (Sudbrink et al., 2000; Medal et al., 2012).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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