Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Mimosa diplotrichahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 337
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: creeping sensitive plant, nila grass, tropical blackberry
Cambodia: preah khlab damrei
Indonesia: jukut boring, putri malu, simeduri-dura
Lao PDR: nya nahm
Myanmar: tee-ka-yone-gyi
Philippines: aroma, hibi-hibi, kamit-kabag, makahiyang lalake
Thailand: maiyaraap luei
Viet Nam: trinh nu móc
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, biennial (living for longer than one year but less than two) or evergreen, scrambling, climbing, strongly branched shrub, forming dense thickets [2–3 (–6) m tall], woody at the base with age; stems green or purplish tinged, 4–5-angled in cross-section, covered with sharp, recurved, yellowish spines (3–6 mm long).
Leaves: Bright-green, twice-divided (10–20 cm long), 4–9 pairs of leaflet branchlets each with 12–30 pairs of small elongated leaflets (6–12 mm long and 1.5 mm wide) with pointed tips, leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Pinkish-violet or purplish, round heads (12 mm across), borne singly or in small groups on hairy stalks (3.5–16 mm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flat, softly spiny on edges, elongated (8–35 mm long and 3–10 mm wide); occur in clusters which break into oneseeded joints; seeds are light brown (1.9 mm long and 2.7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Erosion control, nitrogen fixation, forage for bees, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, crops, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, lowlands, wetlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers other plants and prevents their natural regeneration. Dense stands also prevent or inhibit the movement of livestock and wildlife. In Nigeria, when M. diplotricha density reached 630,000 plants per hectare, cassava root yield, 12 months after planting, was reduced by 80% (Alabi et al., 2001). It readily invades orchards and rice paddies reducing yields and increasing management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). On cattle ranches in Papua New Guinea, up to US$ 130,000 is spent annually on chemical control (Kuniata, 1994). In Thailand, 22 swamp buffaloes died 18–36 hours after eating M. diplotricha (Tungtrakanpoung and Rhienpanish, 1992). Trials in Queensland, Australia, indicated toxicity to sheep, and a report from Flores, Indonesia, suggests that it is toxic to pigs (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Solanum viarumhot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 336
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: tropical soda apple
Viet Nam: cà trái vàng
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect herb [50–150 (–200) cm tall], with densely hairy stems and branches with recurved (2–5 mm long) and straight spines (up to 20 mm long) on the leaf stalks and the leaf veins.
Leaves: Dark green, glossy above, duller below, hairy, simple, broadly egg-shaped [6–20 cm long and 6–15 cm wide], bluntly lobed, with spines on the veins and hairs on both sides, leaf stalks are 3–7 cm long with prickles. Flowers: White (1.5 cm across), in clusters of 1–5.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), mottled light and dark green becoming pale yellow as they mature, smooth (2–3 cm across), containing 400 brown seeds (2–3 mm in diameter).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Grassland, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands displace other plant species by crowding or shading them out. The prickles on the plants reduce wildlife forage and prevent movement of animals through invaded areas (USDA-FS, 2005). The foliage and stems are unpalatable to cattle, considerably reducing livestock-carrying capacities (Medal et al., 2012). Control costs of S. viarum to ranchers in Florida were estimated at US$ 6.5–16 million per year (Thomas, 2007). It has also caused poisoning of goats in Florida (Porter et al., 2003). It is an alternative host for many plant diseases including the cucumber mosaic virus, gemini virus, potato leafroll virus, potato virus Y, tobacco etch virus, tomato mosaic virus, tomato mottle virus and the fungal pathogen, Alternaria solani (Cooke, 1997). It is also a host for a number of insect pests (Sudbrink et al., 2000; Medal et al., 2012).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Mimosa pigrahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 334
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Sub-family: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bashful bush, black mimosa, giant mimosa, giant sensitive plant
Cambodia: banla uyyas, banla yuon, deoum klab yeik; Indonesia: ki kerbau, putri malu
Malaysia: kembang gajah, semalu gajah
Thailand: maiyaraap ton, mai yah raap yak
Viet Nam: trinh nu thân go, trinh nu dam lay
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree (3–6 m high), forming dense thickets, young stems green, rounded, armed with scattered prickles (5–12 mm long), taproot is 1–2 m deep.
Bark: Older stems grey and woody.
Leaves: Yellowish-green, with short fine hairs below, twice-divided (20–31 cm long), straight thorn at the junction of each of the 6–16 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each branchlet with 20–45 pairs of small elongated leaflets (3–12 mm long and 0.5–2 mm wide), leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Pink or mauve, in fluffy round heads (1–2 cm wide), borne singly or in groups of two or three, on stalks (2–7 cm long), arising from each upper leaf fork.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flat and elongated (3–12 cm long and 7–14 mm wide), covered in bristly hairs, borne in clusters (1–30), break transversely into 14–26 segments; seeds greenish-brown to light brown (4–6 mm long and 2–2.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Green manure, nitrogen fixation, medicine, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, riversides, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake edges and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations of M. pigra contribute to a decline in abundance and diversity of species of plants and animals. In Tram Chim National Park, Vietnam, it has reduced the density of native plant species threatening the vulnerable sarus crane (Grus antigone L.) (Triet and Dung, 2001). M. pigra thickets in Australia had fewer plants, birds and lizards, than native vegetation (Braithwaite et al., 1989). In Lochinvar National Park, Zambia, infestations reduced bird diversity by almost 50% and abundance by more than 95% (Shanungu, 2009). In Cambodia, farmers ranked mimosa as the most significant problem affecting rice farming, ‘ahead of pests, rodents, and drought problems’ (Chamroeun et al., 2002). M. pigra also hampers fishing activities and prevents access to water bodies.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Argemone mexicanahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 333
POPPY FAMILY
Papaveraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mexican poppy, Mexican thistle, prickly poppy
Indonesia: druju, celangkringan
Malaysia: chelang keriugan, pokok popi
Myanmar: kye-ja
Philippines: kachumba, kasubang-aso, diluariu
Thailand: fin naam
Viet Nam: cà dai hoa vàng, gai cua, mùi cua
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, very spiny herb (up to 0.9 m high); stems exude a yellow sap when cut.
Leaves: Grey or bluish-green, with prominent white veins and yellowmidvein (5–22 cm long and 3–7 cm wide), deep lobed with sharp spines; leaves of A. ochroleuca Sweet. are a darker shade of green.
Flowers: Bright yellow (2.5–5 cm across) as opposed to pale yellow or creamy white in A. ochroleuca.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), spiny, green turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (2.5–4 cm long), splitting into 3–6 lobes releasing small black seeds (1.5 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida (USA), Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, crops, managed pasture, riparian areas, gullies and dry river courses.
 
IMPACTS
Reduces plant diversity and has an inhibitory effect on the germination and seedling growth of vegetables (Hazarika and Sannigrahi, 2001). Weed residues may also affect the growth and development of bambara
groundnut and sorghum (Karikari et al., 2000). Ingestion of seeds by poultry can result in death, and grazing animals can be poisoned if the seeds are consumed in hay or chaff. Harvesting of crops in the presence
of this weed can also result in injuries. Edible vegetable oil, either accidentally contaminated with A. mexicana, or intentionally adulterated by unscrupulous traders, has resulted in epidemic dropsy in India. An
epidemic also occurred in South Africa following the contamination of wheat flour (Sharma et al., 1999). A. mexicana has been identified as an important allergen in India (Singh and Kumar, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Opuntia strictahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 332
CACTUS FAMILY
Cactaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Australian pest pear, common pest pear, erect prickly pear, sour prickly pear.
 
DESCRIPTION
Succulent erect, spreading shrub [0.5–1.3 (–2) m high]; thicketforming; modified stems called cladodes are blue-green, longer than broad (10–20 cm long and 7.5–14 cm wide); 3–5 areoles (raised structures or bumps on the stems of cacti, out of which grow clusters of spines) per diagonal row on each cladode; 1–2 straight and flattened yellow spines (1.5–4 cm long) usually restricted to marginal areoles as opposed to O. stricta (Ahw.) Haw. var. dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Benson where there are 4–7 (–11) banded spines (1.5–4 cm long) on most areoles.
Leaves: Cylindrical, minute and shed early.
Flowers: Yellow and large (5–6 cm long and 5–6 cm wide).
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning red-purple as they mature, egg-shaped (4–6 cm long and 2.5–3 cm wide), outer surface smooth with clusters of glochids (barbed hairs or bristles), narrowed at the base, purple sour pulp, white seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Ecuador, Mexico, Southern USA, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, rocky outcrops, savannah, grassland and riverbanks in arid to semi-arid regions.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands, preventing access to homes, water resources and pasture. On Madagascar, O. stricta has invaded land used for crop and pasture production, and has encroached on villages and roads, impeding human mobility (Larsson, 2004). Here, the cactus has had a negative impact on native grasses and herbs, and it is even affecting trees by inhibiting their growth and regeneration (Larsson, 2004). The small spines (known as glochids) on the fruit, when consumed by livestock, lodge in their gums, on their tongues, or in their gastrointestinal tracts, causing bacterial infections, while the hard seeds may cause rumen impaction, which can be fatal, and which often leads to excessive, enforced culling of affected animals (Ueckert et al., 1990). People who consume the fruits develop diarrhoea and may suffer from serious infections caused by the spines (Larsson, 2004). In Kenya, O. stricta infestations have resulted in the abandonment of farmlands.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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