Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

DocumentsDate added

Order by : Name | Date | Hits [ Descendent ]
file icon Myriophyllum aquaticumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 275
WATERMILFOIL FAMILY
Haloragaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian water milfoil, parrot’s feather, water feather Indonesia: bulu burung, paris
Viet Nam: rong xuong cá, rong co lông chim
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, rooted aquatic plant with terminal, leafy shoots emerging 20–50 cm above the water surface; stems yellowish green (2–5 m long and 5 mm thick), roots forming at the joints.
Leaves: Pale green or bluish green, feather-like, finely divided, elongated or oval with deeply divided margins (30–45 mm long and 15 mm wide), arranged in groups of 4–6 at the tips of the stems.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, solitary in axis of leaves.
Fruits: None
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers or streams.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations exclude native plants and have multiple negative impacts on water transport, fisheries and recreation, and can increase the abundance of mosquitoes. The high tannin content also means that fish do not eat the plant. In California, control costs of this weed over a two-year period were US$ 215,000 (Anderson, 1993). Additional impacts would be similar to those of water hyacinth.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Mytilopsis salleiTooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 16
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: false mussel, Caribbean black-striped mussel, Caribbean black-striped false mussel, Santo Domingo false mussel, black striped mussel
 
DESCRIPTION
Mytilopsis sallei is a small, fingernail sized mussel, growing to an average size of 25mm, although sizes range from lengths of 8-25mm, with a maximum width of 9.68mm and a maximum height of 12.58mm. It has a varied shell colouration, from black through to a light colour, with some small individuals having a light and dark zig-zag pattern. The right valve overlaps the left valve, and is slightly larger. M. sallei settles in clusters, and is rarely seen as a single individual (NIMPIS, 2002).
 
NATIVE RANGE
World: Atlantic - Western Central, Guatemala, United States, West Indies
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
WORLD: Australia, Hongkong, Japan, Fiji, India, Mexico, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat hull fouling
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hull fouling is often an important factor in incursions, such as the introduction of M. sallei to Darwin Harbour, Australia in the 1990s (Hutchings et al. 2002).Spread via ballast water appears less likely because of the short duration of the larval stage (CSIRO, 2001).
 
IMPACTS
Mytilopsis sallei is an extremely prolific and fecund species, being ecologically similar to its relation the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. It has been responsible for massive fouling on wharves and marinas, seawater systems (pumping stations, vessel ballast and cooling systems) and marine farms. In preferred habitats, it forms dense monospecific groups that exclude most other species, leading to a substantial reduction in biodiversity in infected areas (NIMPIS, 2002; CSIRO, 2001).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Mytilopsis sallei. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1047 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Opuntia strictahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 247
CACTUS FAMILY
Cactaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Australian pest pear, common pest pear, erect prickly pear, sour prickly pear.
 
DESCRIPTION
Succulent erect, spreading shrub [0.5–1.3 (–2) m high]; thicketforming; modified stems called cladodes are blue-green, longer than broad (10–20 cm long and 7.5–14 cm wide); 3–5 areoles (raised structures or bumps on the stems of cacti, out of which grow clusters of spines) per diagonal row on each cladode; 1–2 straight and flattened yellow spines (1.5–4 cm long) usually restricted to marginal areoles as opposed to O. stricta (Ahw.) Haw. var. dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Benson where there are 4–7 (–11) banded spines (1.5–4 cm long) on most areoles.
Leaves: Cylindrical, minute and shed early.
Flowers: Yellow and large (5–6 cm long and 5–6 cm wide).
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning red-purple as they mature, egg-shaped (4–6 cm long and 2.5–3 cm wide), outer surface smooth with clusters of glochids (barbed hairs or bristles), narrowed at the base, purple sour pulp, white seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Ecuador, Mexico, Southern USA, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, rocky outcrops, savannah, grassland and riverbanks in arid to semi-arid regions.
 
IMPACTS
Can form dense stands, preventing access to homes, water resources and pasture. On Madagascar, O. stricta has invaded land used for crop and pasture production, and has encroached on villages and roads, impeding human mobility (Larsson, 2004). Here, the cactus has had a negative impact on native grasses and herbs, and it is even affecting trees by inhibiting their growth and regeneration (Larsson, 2004). The small spines (known as glochids) on the fruit, when consumed by livestock, lodge in their gums, on their tongues, or in their gastrointestinal tracts, causing bacterial infections, while the hard seeds may cause rumen impaction, which can be fatal, and which often leads to excessive, enforced culling of affected animals (Ueckert et al., 1990). People who consume the fruits develop diarrhoea and may suffer from serious infections caused by the spines (Larsson, 2004). In Kenya, O. stricta infestations have resulted in the abandonment of farmlands.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Panicum repenshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 938
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bullet grass, couch panicum, creeping panic grass, quack grass, torpedograss
Cambodia: smau phluk
Indonesia: rumput lampuyangan
Philippines: luya-luyahan, pagudpel, parayparay
Viet Nam: co gung, co cua gà, co ong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen grass with culms (flowering stem) (1 m in height) arising from long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips.
Leaves: Green, linear, flat or folded (7–25 cm long and 2–8 mm wide) with a whitish, waxy covering; leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasps stem) hairless or hairy, with hairs usually restricted to the upper margins; ligule (thin outgrowth at junction of the leaf and leaf stalk) is membranous with short hairs.
Flowers: Branched, open inflorescences (7–22 cm long) with 1–3 branchlets per node.
 
ORIGIN
Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Greece and Italy in Europe.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Forage
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, lowlands, floodplains, wetlands, gullies,lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native vegetation, particularly in or near shallow waters. It is also a serious weed in a wide range of perennial crops including sugarcane in Taiwan and Hawaii; pineapple in West Africa; tea in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka; various orchard crops in Thailand; rubber, coconut and oil palm in Malaysia; and rice in Indonesia and Sri Lanka (Holm et al., 1977). In Taiwan, rhizome density can reach 15 tons per hectare, while a density of 5 tons per hectare can result in a 50% reduction in sugarcane yield (Peng and Sze, 1974). P. repens may act as an alternative host to the rice leafhopper (Holm et al., 1977).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Parthenium hysterophorushot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 257
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: carrot weed, carrot grass, congress weed, famine weed, ragweed, white top.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual erect herb, much branched [0.5–1.5 (–2) m high], forms a basal rosette of leaves when young, green stems are longitudinally grooved or ribbed and covered in short hairs.
Leaves: Pale green, covered with short stiff hairs; rosette and lower stem leaves are deeply divided and large (3–30cm long and 2–12 cm wide); upper stem leaves are shorter and less divided
Flowers: White, in small compact heads (5 mm across), clustered at the tips of branches, each flowerhead has five distinctive petals.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), (1.5–2.5 mm long), five in each flowerhead.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Grenadines, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, ornament and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, riversides, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Parthenium disrupts grasslands, invades woodlands and generally disturbs native vegetation through aggressive competition (Evans, 1997). Parthenium is allelopathic, reducing crop yields, and displacing palatable species in natural and improved pasture. In India, parthenium infestations have resulted in yield losses of up to 40% in several crops (Khosla and Sobti, 1979). Parthenium is also a secondary host for a range of crop pests. In terms of pasture production, this noxious weed has been found to reduce livestock carrying capacities by as much as 90% (Jayachandra, 1971). It also poses serious health hazards to livestock, and can cause severe allergenic reactions in people who regularly come into contact with the weed.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>
Page 9 of 13