Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Duranta erectahot!Tooltip 10/11/2018 Hits: 258
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian skyflower, forget-me-not tree, golden dew drop, golden tears
Indonesia: sinyo nakal
Viet Nam: thanh quan
 
DESCRIPTION
Usually evergreen, multi-stemmed, shrub or small tree [2–4 (–7) m high]; sometimes scrambling, branches with a drooping habit; sometimes with spines in the leaf stalks; branches four-angled.
Leaves: Dark to light green, sparsely hairy to hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped (15–90 mm long and 12–60 mm wide), margins usually entire but sometimes toothed towards the leaf tips, held opposite each other on stem or occasionally in whorls of three.
Flowers: Lilac, light blue, pale purple or white, tubular-shaped (9–18 mm long), in elongated clusters or sprays up to 30 cm long at the ends of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially green turning orange-yellow as they mature, round or almost round (5–14 mm wide), shiny, with a curved beak at one end, borne in large clusters.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Southern USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
D. erecta has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plants, and the organisms associated with them. It is allelopathic and also has the ability to climb into woodland or forest canopies. Its toxicity has been known for over 100 years when the ingestion of fruit was inferred to have killed a two-year-old boy in Queensland, Australia, in the late 19th century (Wheeler, 1895). It has also caused the death of numerous pets (Scanlan et al., 2006) and poisoned cattle (Sutherland, 1953).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Jatropha gossypiifoliahot!Tooltip 10/12/2018 Hits: 258
SPURGE FAMILY
Euphorbiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American purging nut, bellyache bush, red fig-nut flower, red physic nut, wild cassava.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect shrub [1–3 (4) m tall]; older stems are thick and succulent-like; young branches are purplish and hairy; young shoots exude a brownish latex when damaged.
Leaves: Reddish-brown to dark bronze or purplish turning bright green with age, hairless, simple (4.5–10 cm long and 5–13 cm wide), usually with 3 or 5 deep lobes, 3–5 veins from the base, margins glandular and minutely toothed; leaf stalks are 6–9 cm long and covered in sticky hairs.
Flowers: Five dark red or deep purple petals with yellow centre, borne in branched clusters (8–15 cm long) at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), glossy green turning brown as they mature, three-lobed, slightly hairy, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides to almost round (about 12 mm long and 10 mm wide), containing three large light brown seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, natural oils, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open space, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, gullies and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
This weed forms dense thickets, especially in riparian areas where it readily displaces native plant species and prevents their regeneration. It also significantly reduces livestock carrying capacities outcompeting valuable forage species. Although the plant is not consumed by livestock, accidental ingestion does occur. In 1995, in northern Queensland, Australia, 312 head of livestock died (290 cattle, 7 horses and 15 goats) after accidentally consuming the plant during a drought (Csurhes, 1999).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Acacia decurrenshot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 257
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: acacia bark, early black wattle, green wattle, Sydney wattle, tan wattle
Indonesia: wartel
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines [5–10 (–15) m tall]; no visible hairs; branches prominently angled with wings or ridges that emanate from the leaf bases.
Bark: Olive-green turning grey, smooth to deeply fissured.
Leaves: Bright green, twice-divided, feathery; leaflets slender (6–15 mm long), a single raised gland occurs at the junction of each pair of leaf branchlets.
Flowers: Bright yellow, rounded clusters arranged into larger, showy, elongated compound clusters.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning dark brown as they mature, elongated, hairless, slightly flattened (2–10 cm long), containing about 11 black seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Southeast Australia
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tannins, pulp, soil conservation, windbreaks, shelter, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, grasslands, savannah, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
The accumulation of dead/rotting foliage forms a thick ground cover which, over time, eliminates the growth and establishment of other vegetation (Ruskin, 1983). When it forms dense thickets along waterways it reduces water flow and can contribute to flooding (Hill et al., 2000) and streambank erosion. It has a significant impact on water runoff, and because it fixes nitrogen, it alters soil nutrient cycling. Its pollen is reported to be allergenic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Parthenium hysterophorushot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 257
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: carrot weed, carrot grass, congress weed, famine weed, ragweed, white top.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual erect herb, much branched [0.5–1.5 (–2) m high], forms a basal rosette of leaves when young, green stems are longitudinally grooved or ribbed and covered in short hairs.
Leaves: Pale green, covered with short stiff hairs; rosette and lower stem leaves are deeply divided and large (3–30cm long and 2–12 cm wide); upper stem leaves are shorter and less divided
Flowers: White, in small compact heads (5 mm across), clustered at the tips of branches, each flowerhead has five distinctive petals.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), (1.5–2.5 mm long), five in each flowerhead.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Grenadines, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, ornament and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, riversides, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Parthenium disrupts grasslands, invades woodlands and generally disturbs native vegetation through aggressive competition (Evans, 1997). Parthenium is allelopathic, reducing crop yields, and displacing palatable species in natural and improved pasture. In India, parthenium infestations have resulted in yield losses of up to 40% in several crops (Khosla and Sobti, 1979). Parthenium is also a secondary host for a range of crop pests. In terms of pasture production, this noxious weed has been found to reduce livestock carrying capacities by as much as 90% (Jayachandra, 1971). It also poses serious health hazards to livestock, and can cause severe allergenic reactions in people who regularly come into contact with the weed.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Vachellia niloticahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 256
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: gum arabic, Nile thorn, prickly acacia, scented thorn
Indonesia: akasia
Viet Nam: keo a rap
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thorny tree or shrub [4–6 (–25) m]; usually singlestemmed, crown scattered when young, later umbrella-shaped; thorns greyish (up to 10 cm long); deep and well-developed root system.
Bark: In young trees tinge of orange and/or green; in older trees brown-black, rough and deeply grooved.
Leaves: Dark green, hairless, twice-divided with 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets (4 cm long), each with 10–25 pairs of leaflets, which are narrow and somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–6 mm long and 0.5– .5 mm wide); pair of spines (1–5 cm long) at base of each group of leaves in young stems.
Flowers: Pale to golden yellow globular flowerheads (1–1.5 cm across) on 2 cm long stalks, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning black as they mature, straight or slightly curved (10–20 cm long and 5–17 mm wide), constrictions between each seed in the pod resemble a string of pearls.
 
ORIGIN
India, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tools, medicine, chicorysubstitute in coffee, fodder, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, windbreak, firebreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, woodland edges/gaps, savannah and natural pasture.
 
IMPACTS
In Queensland, Australia, tree cover of just 25–30% has reduced the amount of pasture by 50% (Carter, 1994). Dense thickets also make it difficult to herd livestock, and animals have reduced access to water. In Indonesia, A. nilotica in Baluran National Park has reduced the amount of grazing available for herbivores, threatening the continued existence of the endangered banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton; Bovidae). Infestations also contribute to increase soil erosion. Because the tree fixes nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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