Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

DocumentsDate added

Order by : Name | Date | Hits | [ Ascendant ]
file icon Cestrum aurantiacumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 291
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: orange cestrum, orange jessamine, yellow cestrum.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, much-branched, half-climbing shrub [1–2 (–6m) high], sparsely hairy stems and leaves; stems and leaves bruise easily, emitting an unpleasant smell.
Leaves: Light green, hairless, oval to egg-shaped (7–13 cm long and 2.5–7 cm wide), leaf stalk 1–4 cm long.
Flowers: Orange-yellow, tubular (17–21 mm long), 10–15 in axillary and terminal clusters.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), white, spongy, round, small (10 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Guatemala and probably elsewhere in Central America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, savannah, riversides and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Readily ‘climbs’ into trees and over shrubs, smothering native vegetation and impoverishing biodiversity. In Kenya, C. aurantiacum has invaded over 4,000 hectares of the Cherangany Forest displacing valuable forage species. It is toxic to people and to livestock and has caused numerous cattle deaths. Cattle that have consumed the plant become tetchy, before becoming paralysed and dying. The unripe berries are also fatal if consumed by sheep, and its leaves lead to non-fatal poisoning (Bizimana, 1994). According to the community in Cherangany Forest, the species has also had a negative impact on bee populations.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
 
file icon Duranta erectahot!Tooltip 10/11/2018 Hits: 291
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian skyflower, forget-me-not tree, golden dew drop, golden tears
Indonesia: sinyo nakal
Viet Nam: thanh quan
 
DESCRIPTION
Usually evergreen, multi-stemmed, shrub or small tree [2–4 (–7) m high]; sometimes scrambling, branches with a drooping habit; sometimes with spines in the leaf stalks; branches four-angled.
Leaves: Dark to light green, sparsely hairy to hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped (15–90 mm long and 12–60 mm wide), margins usually entire but sometimes toothed towards the leaf tips, held opposite each other on stem or occasionally in whorls of three.
Flowers: Lilac, light blue, pale purple or white, tubular-shaped (9–18 mm long), in elongated clusters or sprays up to 30 cm long at the ends of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially green turning orange-yellow as they mature, round or almost round (5–14 mm wide), shiny, with a curved beak at one end, borne in large clusters.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Southern USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
D. erecta has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plants, and the organisms associated with them. It is allelopathic and also has the ability to climb into woodland or forest canopies. Its toxicity has been known for over 100 years when the ingestion of fruit was inferred to have killed a two-year-old boy in Queensland, Australia, in the late 19th century (Wheeler, 1895). It has also caused the death of numerous pets (Scanlan et al., 2006) and poisoned cattle (Sutherland, 1953).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Parthenium hysterophorushot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 290
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: carrot weed, carrot grass, congress weed, famine weed, ragweed, white top.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual erect herb, much branched [0.5–1.5 (–2) m high], forms a basal rosette of leaves when young, green stems are longitudinally grooved or ribbed and covered in short hairs.
Leaves: Pale green, covered with short stiff hairs; rosette and lower stem leaves are deeply divided and large (3–30cm long and 2–12 cm wide); upper stem leaves are shorter and less divided
Flowers: White, in small compact heads (5 mm across), clustered at the tips of branches, each flowerhead has five distinctive petals.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), (1.5–2.5 mm long), five in each flowerhead.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Grenadines, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, ornament and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, riversides, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Parthenium disrupts grasslands, invades woodlands and generally disturbs native vegetation through aggressive competition (Evans, 1997). Parthenium is allelopathic, reducing crop yields, and displacing palatable species in natural and improved pasture. In India, parthenium infestations have resulted in yield losses of up to 40% in several crops (Khosla and Sobti, 1979). Parthenium is also a secondary host for a range of crop pests. In terms of pasture production, this noxious weed has been found to reduce livestock carrying capacities by as much as 90% (Jayachandra, 1971). It also poses serious health hazards to livestock, and can cause severe allergenic reactions in people who regularly come into contact with the weed.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Solanum viarumhot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 290
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: tropical soda apple
Viet Nam: cà trái vàng
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect herb [50–150 (–200) cm tall], with densely hairy stems and branches with recurved (2–5 mm long) and straight spines (up to 20 mm long) on the leaf stalks and the leaf veins.
Leaves: Dark green, glossy above, duller below, hairy, simple, broadly egg-shaped [6–20 cm long and 6–15 cm wide], bluntly lobed, with spines on the veins and hairs on both sides, leaf stalks are 3–7 cm long with prickles. Flowers: White (1.5 cm across), in clusters of 1–5.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), mottled light and dark green becoming pale yellow as they mature, smooth (2–3 cm across), containing 400 brown seeds (2–3 mm in diameter).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Grassland, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands displace other plant species by crowding or shading them out. The prickles on the plants reduce wildlife forage and prevent movement of animals through invaded areas (USDA-FS, 2005). The foliage and stems are unpalatable to cattle, considerably reducing livestock-carrying capacities (Medal et al., 2012). Control costs of S. viarum to ranchers in Florida were estimated at US$ 6.5–16 million per year (Thomas, 2007). It has also caused poisoning of goats in Florida (Porter et al., 2003). It is an alternative host for many plant diseases including the cucumber mosaic virus, gemini virus, potato leafroll virus, potato virus Y, tobacco etch virus, tomato mosaic virus, tomato mottle virus and the fungal pathogen, Alternaria solani (Cooke, 1997). It is also a host for a number of insect pests (Sudbrink et al., 2000; Medal et al., 2012).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Bidens pilosahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 287
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: black jack, beggar’s tick, broom stick, cobbler’s pegs, Spanish needle
Indonesia: ajeran
Lao PDR: pak kwan cham
Myanmar: moat-so-ma-hlan, ta-se-urt
Philippines: borburtak, enwad, kaperek, nguwad, puriket, pisau-pisau, tubak-tubak
Thailand: puen nok sai
Viet Nam: xuyen chi
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or evergreen erect herb (up to 1 m tall), hairless stems, fourangled, purplish green in colour, simple or branched.
Leaves: Green, compound with 3–5 leaflets each; leaflets variable but usually egg-shaped with a broader and rounded base tapering towards the end to spear-shaped [3–7 (–10) cm long and 1–2 (–5) cm wide], margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth, terminal leaflet always larger than lateral (side) ones.
Flowers: White petals, centre yellow (7–8 mm wide), usually borne singly on stalks (1 cm long).
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, slender (1.5 mm long), ribbed, 2–4 barbed bristles or awns at terminal end.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wastelands, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens, drainage ditches, forest edges/ gaps, woodlands, riversides, lowlands, floodplains and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Under favourable conditions a single plant can produce 3,000–6,000 seeds per year, with 3–4 generations annually. This, together with its allelopathic properties, allows it to form dense stands rapidly, displacing
native vegetation. In Southeast Asia, this weed is problematic for those growing cabbage, pineapple, guava and plantation crops (Waterhouse, 1993). Densities of eight blackjack plants per square metre, in soybean
fields in Argentina, reduced yields by 43% (Arce et al., 1995). Dry bean harvests in Uganda and Peru were reduced by 48% and 18–48%, respectively, as a result of the presence of B. pilosa. B. pilosa is also a
host and vector to harmful parasites such as root knot nematodes and tomato spotted wilt virus (Mvere, 2004; DPI, 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>
Page 9 of 13