Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 370
MULBERRY FAMILY
Moraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
 
DESCRIPTION
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: goatweed, invading ageratum, Mexican ageratum
Indonesia: badotan, wedusan
Lao PDR: nya khiu
Myanmar: kayin-ma-pau-poo, khwe-thay-paw
Philippines: baho-baho, bolas-bolas, budbuda, kanding-kanding, kolokong-kabayo, singilan, tuway-tuway
Thailand: saapraeng saapkaa, yaa suap raeng
Viet Nam: cây cut lon
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual herb with fluffy flowerheads with green, purplish or reddish stems [0.3-1 (1.5) m tall] covered in short white hairs on young parts and nodes; shallow fibrous roots.
Leaves: Bright green, sparsely hairy, rough with prominent veins, triangular to egg-shaped (20-100 mm long and 5-50 mm wide) margins bluntly toothed with blunt or pointed tips, in opposite pairs, hairy petioles (5-75 mm); characteristic odour when crushed smelling like a male goat.
Flowers: Blue to lavender, sometimes with a white head in compact terminal flowerheads bearing 4–18 flowerheads (4–5mm across and 4–6 mm long), with slender, hardly exserted styles as opposed to its congener A. houstonianum, which has longer and thicker exserted styles in heads that are about 6–9 mm accross; slightly aromatic.
Fruits: Brown and one-seeded.
 
ORIGIN
Central and South America and West Indies.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, croplands, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, grasslands, natural pasture, riparian areas, lowlands, wetlands and coastal dunes.
 
IMPACTS
This weed is allelopathic and as a result readily displaces native plant species. It excludes native grasses and medicinally important plants, reduces native plant abundance and creates homogenous monospecific
stands (Dogra et al. 2009). In Hawaii in threatens the survival of native species including Brighamia insignis (Centre for Plant Conservation, 2004, in CABI, 2016). It causes yield reductions of major staple crops in
India, and invades rangelands displacing native grasses and as a result reducing the amount of available forage. It also reduces crop yields, and is an important alternate host of a number of economically important crop pathogens and nematodes. In Tigray, Ethiopia, accidental consumption of the seeds with sorghum grains was implicated in the cause of liver disease resulting in the deaths of 27 people and numerous livestock.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Sphagneticola trilobatahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 426
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: creeping oxeye, creeping daisy, creeping wedelia, Singapore daisy
Indonesia: seruni, widelia, wedelia
Malaysia: panchut-panchut
Philippines: imelda
Viet Nam: son cúc ba thùy
 
DESCRIPTION
Creeping, mat-forming evergreen herb with scrambling or climbing habit [15–30 (–70) cm tall]; stems green or reddish (up to 2 m long), slightly hairy, rounded, rooting at the joints.
Leaves: Dark green, glossy, almost hairless, simple, fleshy (40–180 mm long and 15–80 mm wide), three-lobed, margins toothed, held in opposite pairs on stem, stalkless or on short stalks.
Flowers: Bright yellow to orange, daisy-like (20–35 mm across), borne singly on upright stalks (3–15 cm long).
Fruits: Achene (small, dry, one-seeded fruit that does not open at maturity), brown, elongate (4–5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, erosion control and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wasteland, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Forms a dense ground cover to the detriment of other plant species. It is also allelopathic enhancing its competitiveness (Zhang et al., 2004). Even low infestation levels have a negative impact on plant diversity. In a study on Hainan Island, China, S. trilobata already starts decreasing plant community diversity at 10% cover (Qi et al., 2014). In south-east Viti Levu and Taveuni Island, Fiji, it has invaded taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott; Araceae] fields (Macanawai, 2013).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Tithonia diversifoliahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 498
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mexican sunflower, shrub sunflower, tree marigold
Cambodia: chhouk roth japon
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Viet Nam: dã quy
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or evergreen herbaceous shrub, woody at the base [2–3 (–5) m high]; stems slightly ridged and hairy when young.
Leaves: Greyish-green, finely hairy on underside giving a grey appearance, simple (6–33 cm long and 5–22 cm wide) with 3–5 (–7) pointed lobes, margins with a series of curved projections or teeth; held opposite or alternately on stem.
Flowers: Bright yellow, daisy or sunflower-like (up to 10 cm across), held on long and swollen stalks (7–30 cm long) which are velvety below the flowerhead.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown (4–8 mm long), in a spiky mass.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder, medicine, mulch, soil improvement, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed sites, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, savannah, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands displacing native plant species and the animals associated with them. T. diversifolia is displacing native species in the wetlands of the Apete River, Eleyele Lake and Oba Dam in Ibadan, Nigeria, including the invasive and aggressive shrub Chromolaena odorata (Oluode et al., 2011), and is now considered to be one of the most invasive species in Nigeria (Borokini, 2011). Mexican sunflower has the ability to compete with agricultural crops (Ilori et al., 2007) and is contributing to the extinction of local species, including important medicinal plants (Oludare and Muoghalu, 2014). According to reports, it is leading to the abandonment of farms in the Copperbelt region of Zambia.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Stachytarpheta jamaicensishot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 517
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: blue porter weed, blue snake weed, Brazilian tea, Jamaica snakeweed, porterweed, snake weed
Indonesia: gewongan, jarong
Malaysia: ramput tahi babi, selaseh dandi
Philippines: albaka, bilu-bilu, bolomaros, kandi-kandilaan, limbagat, sentemiento, verbena de las antilles
Viet Nam: cây duôi chuot, hai tiên
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrubby herb (60–120 cm high), young stems green or purplish, mostly hairless and square in cross-section becoming rounded, light brown and woody as they mature; woody rootstock.
Leaves: Green with a bluish or greyish tinge, leathery, hairless or with a few hairs on veins on undersides, simple, leaves eggshaped, oval or somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–12 cm long and 1–5 cm wide) with rounded tips, margins sharp but finely toothed; leaves held opposite each other on stems on stalks 5–35 mm long.
Flowers: Light blue, blue or mauve, tubular (7–11 mm long and 8 mm across) on long, curved and thick spikes (15–50 cm long and 3–7 mm thick) at the end of branches.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning dark brown, dark purple or black as they mature, small, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (3–7 mm longand 1.5–2 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, south-eastern USA, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed sites, wastelands, fallow land, plantations, managed pasture, gardens, drainage ditches, savannah, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, lowlands, floodplains and coastal environs.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands outcompeting native plants for water and nutrients. Probable host of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus in India (Mathew and Balakrishnan, 1991).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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