Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Duranta erectahot!Tooltip 10/11/2018 Hits: 404
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian skyflower, forget-me-not tree, golden dew drop, golden tears
Indonesia: sinyo nakal
Viet Nam: thanh quan
 
DESCRIPTION
Usually evergreen, multi-stemmed, shrub or small tree [2–4 (–7) m high]; sometimes scrambling, branches with a drooping habit; sometimes with spines in the leaf stalks; branches four-angled.
Leaves: Dark to light green, sparsely hairy to hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped (15–90 mm long and 12–60 mm wide), margins usually entire but sometimes toothed towards the leaf tips, held opposite each other on stem or occasionally in whorls of three.
Flowers: Lilac, light blue, pale purple or white, tubular-shaped (9–18 mm long), in elongated clusters or sprays up to 30 cm long at the ends of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially green turning orange-yellow as they mature, round or almost round (5–14 mm wide), shiny, with a curved beak at one end, borne in large clusters.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Southern USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
D. erecta has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plants, and the organisms associated with them. It is allelopathic and also has the ability to climb into woodland or forest canopies. Its toxicity has been known for over 100 years when the ingestion of fruit was inferred to have killed a two-year-old boy in Queensland, Australia, in the late 19th century (Wheeler, 1895). It has also caused the death of numerous pets (Scanlan et al., 2006) and poisoned cattle (Sutherland, 1953).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Clidemia hirtahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 394
TIBOUCHINA FAMILY
Melastomataceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Koster’s curse, soap bush
Indonesia: harendong bulu
Viet Nam: co saphony
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub [0.5–3 (–5) m tall], branchlets rounded, covered with large reddish-brown hairs/bristles.
Leaves: Light green, upper surfaces with a few hairs, lower surfaces more densely hairy, simple, oval or egg-shaped (5–18 cm long and 3–8 cm wide) with pointed tips, 5–7 prominent veins from the base running almost parallel; margins finely toothed, leaves appear wrinkled or pleated, leaves held opposite each other on stem.
Flowers: White or sometimes pale pink, in clusters in the leaf forks or tips of branches, on a short flower stalk (0.5–1 mm long); base of flower is swollen into a cup-shaped structure.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), dark blue, purplish or blackish, globular (4–9 mm across), covered in hairs/bristles; seeds are light brown (0.5–0.75 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, pasture, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps and riversides.
 
IMPACTS
This invasive plant has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plant species. Smith (1985) characterized the impacts of C.hirta as ‘devastating’ in Hawaii, where it threatens the extinction of endemic species. In Tanzania, it suppresses native herbs (Pocs, 1989), while in Fiji, it renders grazing land useless and retards the development of rubber and cocoa plantations. In Southeast Asia, it invades orchards and rubber and oil palm plantations where it reduces yields and increases management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). It came to be known as ‘Koster’s curse’ after being accidentally introduced to Fiji by Koster and its subsequent impacts
(curse) on plantation crops. It is also toxic to livestock (Francis, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Chromolaena odoratahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 410
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: chromolaena, devil weed, paraffin bush, Siam weed, triffid weed, turpentine weed
Cambodia: tuntrien khaet
Indonesia: kerinyu, tekelan
Lao PDR: nya khi law
Myanmar: kone-be-da, ne-da-ban, zama-ni
Philippines: dalayday, gonoy, hagonoy, talpus-palad
Thailand: saap suea
Viet Nam: co lào
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub, which may take the form of a scrambler when growing among trees (3–7 m high), often forming dense thickets; stems yellowish-green and somewhat hairy, woody towards the base with wide-spreading branches; deep taproot.
Leaves: Light green, hairy, simple, triangular (5–12 cm long and 3–7 cm wide), pointed, margins toothed, three conspicuous veins from the base; leaves held opposite each other on stem, smell strongly of turpentine when crushed.
Flowers: Mauve, in cylindrical heads (about 10 mm long and 3 mm wide) clustered at the ends of stems.
Fruits: Achene (small, dry, one-seeded fruit that doesn’t open at maturity), straw-coloured, bristly (4–5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, plantation crops, managed pastures, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, savannah, natural pasture, riparian vegetation, lowlands 
and floodplains.
 
IMPACTS
One mature plant can produce approximately one million seeds per year. Its ability to form dense impenetrable thickets leads to the displacement of native plant species and the dry stems and leaves, which are rich in oils, also increase fire intensities (McFadyen, 2004) contributing to additional biodiversity loss. In South Africa, infestations have a negative impact on the breeding biology of the Nile crocodile (Leslie and Spotila, 2001), while in Cameroon, it displaces native species in the family Zingiberaceae, a major food source for the endangered western lowland gorilla (van der Hoeven and Prins, 2007). In Southeast Asia, it is also a serious weed of oil palm, rubber, coffee, cashew, fruit and forestry (Waterhouse, 1993). In fact ‘some agricultural areas in Southeast Asia have been abandoned because Siam weed has taken over pasture and crops’ (CRC for Weed Management, 2003). It also causes serious health problems in livestock and people (Soerohaldoko, 1971; Sajise et al., 1974) and significantly reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Cestrum aurantiacumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 410
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: orange cestrum, orange jessamine, yellow cestrum.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, much-branched, half-climbing shrub [1–2 (–6m) high], sparsely hairy stems and leaves; stems and leaves bruise easily, emitting an unpleasant smell.
Leaves: Light green, hairless, oval to egg-shaped (7–13 cm long and 2.5–7 cm wide), leaf stalk 1–4 cm long.
Flowers: Orange-yellow, tubular (17–21 mm long), 10–15 in axillary and terminal clusters.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), white, spongy, round, small (10 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Guatemala and probably elsewhere in Central America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, savannah, riversides and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Readily ‘climbs’ into trees and over shrubs, smothering native vegetation and impoverishing biodiversity. In Kenya, C. aurantiacum has invaded over 4,000 hectares of the Cherangany Forest displacing valuable forage species. It is toxic to people and to livestock and has caused numerous cattle deaths. Cattle that have consumed the plant become tetchy, before becoming paralysed and dying. The unripe berries are also fatal if consumed by sheep, and its leaves lead to non-fatal poisoning (Bizimana, 1994). According to the community in Cherangany Forest, the species has also had a negative impact on bee populations.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
 
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: calliandra, red calliandra
Indonesia: kaliandra, kaliandra merah
Malaysia: kaliandra
Viet Nam: muong hoa pháo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, thornless, often multi-stemmed leguminous shrub or small tree [5–6 (–12 m) tall] with a trunk diameter of 20 (–30) cm.
Bark: White to red-brown and hairless, sometimes finely hairy.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided (10–19 cm long) with 6–20 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each with 19–60 pairs of linear, somewhat elongated and pointed leaflets (5–8 mm long and 1 mm wide).
Flowers: Red in terminal clusters up to 30 cm long with numerous long shiny red stamens, showy.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, straight, flattened (8–13 cm long and 1–1.6 cm wide) with thickened and raised margins splitting open, with each half curling back, held erect on stem.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, fodder, ornament, soil conservation, nitrogen fixation and green manure.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, plantation edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
It has the ability to form dense thickets, displacing native species, especially in riparian areas. It is an aggressive colonizer of disturbed habitats, is highly adaptable, and able to grow under a wide variety of soil and environmental conditions (Macqueen, 1992; Palmer et al., 1994). It has the potential to suppress other plants very quickly when competing for water and nutrients (CONABIO, 2014). In Kabale, Uganda, some farmers claimed that it competed with food crops, impacted negatively on soil nutrients and harboured pest birds. Calliandra also fixes nitrogen and as a result impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
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