Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Hedychium gardnerianumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 232
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: kahili garland lily, kahili ginger, red ginger lily, wild ginger
Viet Nam: gung dai
 
DESCRIPTION
Robust, evergreen, with creeping underground stems or rhizomes [1–2 (–2.5) m high], branching surface rhizomes that can form dense mats up to 1 m thick.
Leaves: Bright green or greyish-green, glossy, upper surface hairless, lower surface sparsely hairy, narrow, tapering with pointed tips (20–45 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire; leaves held alternately on stem with a long base that sheaths the stem.
Flowers: Yellow in large clusters (15–45 cm long and 15–20 cm wide) at tips of stems; each flower has a slender red tube.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), thin-walled (about 1.5 cm long) with three compartments.
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, India and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riverbanks and damp areas.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands out-competing native species for light, space, nutrients and moisture, and its shade tolerance makes it able to thrive in forests. The thick rhizome mats also prevent the establishment of other species. Populations are now found on all islands in Hawaii (Smith, 1985). Its aggressive growth and shade tolerance means that it can form dense thickets in the understorey of open and closed-canopy Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) rainforests as well as in open habitats and forest edges around the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Anderson and Gardner, 1999). It threatens primary forest remnants in La Réunion and continuous expansion of large stands may endanger endemic lichens, vascular plants, molluscs and arthropods in the Azores. Infestations on Sao Miguel Island also threaten the Azores bullfinch. During rains, large infestations growing on steep slopes often become heavy with absorbed water and slip down slopes, contributing to erosion and gully formation.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Hedychium coronariumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 251
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: butterfly ginger, garland flower, garland lily, ginger lily, white butterfly ginger lily, white ginger, white ginger-lily, wild ginger
Indonesia: gondasuli, gandasoli, mandasuli
Malaysia: gandasuli, suli
Philippines: kamia, jing hua
Thailand: hanghong, hun kaeo, mahaahong, tha haan
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen herbaceous plant [1–2.5 (–2.5) m tall] which produces a thick mat of creeping underground stems (2.5–5 cm across) close to the soil surface, stems are reddish at base and covered by leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasp stem).
Leaves: Green, glossy, smooth, hairless, simple, sword-shaped or somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides narrowed to a slender point (50–60 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire with
prominent midvein; leaves held alternately on stem.
Flowers: White, at the tip of each unbranched stem, showy, fragrant.
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), orange-yellow, dry, smooth, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2.5–3.5 cm long) containing many seeds (6 mm long and 4 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Taiwan.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dam edges, ponds, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Forms extensive thickets which disrupt water flow in channels and displace and suppress the regeneration of native wetland plants. In Brazil, dense infestations have caused the localized extinction of Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora), a rare invertebrate, in a nature reserve established to protect it (Soares and Barreto, 2008). White ginger is a threat to Clermontia samuelii Forbes (Campanulaceae) and Labordia tinifolia A. Gray var. lanaiensis Sherff. (Loganiaceae), two endemic plant species on the Maui Nui group of islands in the Hawaiian Islands (USFWS, 1999). In St Lucia it may be replacing the rare indigenous orchid Habenaria monorrhiza [Sw] Rchb.f (Orchidaceae) (Krauss, 2012). The plant is also toxic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Gymnodinium catenatumnew!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: naked dinoflagellate, estuarine dinoflagellate, chain-forming dinoflagellate
 
DESCRIPTION
Gymnodinium catenatum is a toxic, bloom forming species of microalgae. It is usually seen in long, swimming chains of tiny cells, with up to 32 cells in a chain (occasionally 64). It is also seen as solitary cells with a green-brown colour. The size of these cells ranges from 38 - 53 um long and 33 - 45 um wide. The cells are circular to squarish in shape, with many rounded organelles within them. Cysts of G. catenatum are brown, spherical and range in size from 45 - 50 um in diameter.
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Philippines, Singapore
WORLD: Argentina, Baha De La Paz, China, Cuba, Iberian Coastal, Japan, Korea, Republic Of, Mexico, Pacific-Eastern Central, Portugal, Spain, Venezuela, Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Hong Kong, Italy, Korea Democratic People’s Republic Of, Mediterranean and Black Sea, New Zealand, Uruguay
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat Ballast Water
Aquaculture and Fisheries
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ballast water can transport this organism long distances to new environments. Cysts of G. catenatum can be accidentally translocated through aquaculture and fisheries activities, such as in oyster cages or on mussel ropes.
 
IMPACTS
Toxins (saxitoxins and gonyautoxins) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum can cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP). Mussels, oysters and scallops from areas affected by G. catenatum blooms have been highly contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins, resulting in human poisonings (NIMPIS, 2002c).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gymnodinium catenatum. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=645 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
SYSTEM
Marine
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a red macroalga that is cartilaginous, cylindrical and up to 50 cm long. It is coarsely branched, often profusely so. G. vermiculophylla can be found as loose-lying thalli or attached to small stones or shells. Red algae are often found in the vegetative state, and characterisation of reproductive structures is often necessary for correct identification of Gracilaria species (AlgaeBase 2010; Liao & Hommersand 2003; Nyberg et al. 2009; Rueness 2005).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Viet Nam
World: China, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN:
World: Atlantic-Northeast, Canada, Europe, Germany, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Atlantic-Northwest, Denmark, France, Italy, Morocco, Pacific-Northeast, Spain, United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water Fisheries
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Spread is likely to occur on vectors such as fishing and leisure boats (Nyberg 2007 in Nyberg et al. 2009).Fishing gear (Nyberg et al. 2009).
 
IMPACTS
Gracilaria vermiculophylla inhibits the growth and survival of native algae through competition (Council of Europe 2009; Hamman et al. n.d.). G. vermiculophylla is reported to be a problem in fishing industries through fouling of nets (Freshwater et al. 2000).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1698 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
 
 
 
file icon Gracilaria salicornianew!Tooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: red alga
Philippines: canot-canot; caocaoayan
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria salicornia varies in colour from a bright yellow at the tips to orange, green or brown at the base. The thallus is cylindrical (0.5cm in diameter) and dichotomously branched with constrictions at the base of each dichotomy. In Hawai’i it generally grows in three-dimensional mats that are tightly adherent to hard substrata and can be up to 25-40cm in thickness; in calm environments it may grow in an upright and more openly branching form (Smith Pers. Comm. 2003).
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
World: Australia, Fiji, India, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, United States, Yemen, China, Guam, Japan, Kuwait, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Reunion, South Africa, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water; Ship/boat hull fouling
Intentional release
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Gracilaria salicornia was introduced intentionally to two reefs on O'ahu, Hawai'i, in the 1970s for experimental aquaculture for the agar industry (Smith et al. 2004).A likely vector of transport of invasive marine algae is through ship fouling and/or ballast water. In Hawaii many alien algae were first collected in or around harbors and gradually dispersed to neighbouring areas (Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
IMPACTS
In tropical regions, blooms of indigenous algae (such as Gracilaria salicornia) have often been tied to reductions in grazing intensity and increases in anthropogenically derived nutrient levels (Miller et al. 1999, McClanahan et al. 2001, McCook et al. 2001, Smith et al. 2001, Stimson et al. 2001, Thacker et al. 2001, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002). G. salicornia is likely to damage native coral environments by over-growing native benthic organisms such as algae and marine invertebrates. Because of its large morphological stature and the dense mats it forms (5 to 10cm thick), G. salicornia can have large effects on benthic ecology by monopolising stratum (Smith et al. 2004). In many cases, red alga becomes ecologically dominant and grows over coral reefs. For example, in areas of Hawaii such as Waikiki G. salicornia has become the single-most dominant benthic species in an area that before invasion was home to over 60 species of macroalgae (Doty 1969, in Smith et al. 2004. The long-term consequences of phase shifts from coral to algal dominance may include the loss of biodiversity, a decrease in the intrinsic value of the reef, changes in the community structure (eg: a reduction in the numbers of reef fish dependent upon corals for habitat and shelter), and erosion of the reef (Hughes 1994, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria salicornia. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1026 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
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