Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Duranta erectahot!Tooltip 10/11/2018 Hits: 547
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian skyflower, forget-me-not tree, golden dew drop, golden tears
Indonesia: sinyo nakal
Viet Nam: thanh quan
 
DESCRIPTION
Usually evergreen, multi-stemmed, shrub or small tree [2–4 (–7) m high]; sometimes scrambling, branches with a drooping habit; sometimes with spines in the leaf stalks; branches four-angled.
Leaves: Dark to light green, sparsely hairy to hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped (15–90 mm long and 12–60 mm wide), margins usually entire but sometimes toothed towards the leaf tips, held opposite each other on stem or occasionally in whorls of three.
Flowers: Lilac, light blue, pale purple or white, tubular-shaped (9–18 mm long), in elongated clusters or sprays up to 30 cm long at the ends of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially green turning orange-yellow as they mature, round or almost round (5–14 mm wide), shiny, with a curved beak at one end, borne in large clusters.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Southern USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
D. erecta has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plants, and the organisms associated with them. It is allelopathic and also has the ability to climb into woodland or forest canopies. Its toxicity has been known for over 100 years when the ingestion of fruit was inferred to have killed a two-year-old boy in Queensland, Australia, in the late 19th century (Wheeler, 1895). It has also caused the death of numerous pets (Scanlan et al., 2006) and poisoned cattle (Sutherland, 1953).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Eichhornia crassipeshot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 1000
PICKEREL WEED FAMILY
Pontederiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: lilac devil, Nile lily, pickerelweed, water hyacinth, water orchid
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, free-floating, aquatic plant that may become anchored in shallow water; [10–20 (–100) cm high]; roots are long and feathery; runners (10 cm long) are produced across the water surface and give rise to new plants.
Leaves: Dark green, shiny, hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped to almost rounded (2–25 cm long and 2–15 cm wide) with swollen bladder-like stems (30 cm long).
Flowers: Pale violet or blue (4–6 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide), upper petal of each flower has a prominent yellow-centred patch; flowers in clusters of 8–10.
Fruits: Capsules (a dry fruit that opens at maturity) (10–15 mm long), containing very fine seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
This aquatic weed has the ability to form thick mats which hamper water transport; inhibit or even prevent fishing-related activities; block waterways and canals; hamper hydroelectricity generation; and provide breeding sites for vectors of human and animal diseases, increasing the incidence of malaria, encephalitis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, river blindness and possibly cholera (Burton, 1960; Spira et al., 1981; Gopal, 1987; Viswam et al., 1989). The thick mats reduce light penetration into the water, causing declines in the concentrations of phytoplankton that support the zooplankton–fish food chain. Extensive mats of water hyacinth increase water loss through evapotranspiration, and impact rice production (Waterhouse, 1993). In southern Benin, an infestation of water hyacinth reduced the annual income of 200,000 people by about US $84 million (de Groote et al., 2003). Lost revenues for men were mostly fishing-related, while women experienced lost revenues in trade, primarily of food crops and fish.
 
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018.

 

file icon Gracilaria salicorniahot!Tooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 426
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: red alga
Philippines: canot-canot; caocaoayan
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria salicornia varies in colour from a bright yellow at the tips to orange, green or brown at the base. The thallus is cylindrical (0.5cm in diameter) and dichotomously branched with constrictions at the base of each dichotomy. In Hawai’i it generally grows in three-dimensional mats that are tightly adherent to hard substrata and can be up to 25-40cm in thickness; in calm environments it may grow in an upright and more openly branching form (Smith Pers. Comm. 2003).
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
World: Australia, Fiji, India, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, United States, Yemen, China, Guam, Japan, Kuwait, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Reunion, South Africa, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water; Ship/boat hull fouling
Intentional release
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Gracilaria salicornia was introduced intentionally to two reefs on O'ahu, Hawai'i, in the 1970s for experimental aquaculture for the agar industry (Smith et al. 2004).A likely vector of transport of invasive marine algae is through ship fouling and/or ballast water. In Hawaii many alien algae were first collected in or around harbors and gradually dispersed to neighbouring areas (Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
IMPACTS
In tropical regions, blooms of indigenous algae (such as Gracilaria salicornia) have often been tied to reductions in grazing intensity and increases in anthropogenically derived nutrient levels (Miller et al. 1999, McClanahan et al. 2001, McCook et al. 2001, Smith et al. 2001, Stimson et al. 2001, Thacker et al. 2001, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002). G. salicornia is likely to damage native coral environments by over-growing native benthic organisms such as algae and marine invertebrates. Because of its large morphological stature and the dense mats it forms (5 to 10cm thick), G. salicornia can have large effects on benthic ecology by monopolising stratum (Smith et al. 2004). In many cases, red alga becomes ecologically dominant and grows over coral reefs. For example, in areas of Hawaii such as Waikiki G. salicornia has become the single-most dominant benthic species in an area that before invasion was home to over 60 species of macroalgae (Doty 1969, in Smith et al. 2004. The long-term consequences of phase shifts from coral to algal dominance may include the loss of biodiversity, a decrease in the intrinsic value of the reef, changes in the community structure (eg: a reduction in the numbers of reef fish dependent upon corals for habitat and shelter), and erosion of the reef (Hughes 1994, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria salicornia. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1026 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Gracilaria vermiculophyllahot!Tooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 374
SYSTEM
Marine
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a red macroalga that is cartilaginous, cylindrical and up to 50 cm long. It is coarsely branched, often profusely so. G. vermiculophylla can be found as loose-lying thalli or attached to small stones or shells. Red algae are often found in the vegetative state, and characterisation of reproductive structures is often necessary for correct identification of Gracilaria species (AlgaeBase 2010; Liao & Hommersand 2003; Nyberg et al. 2009; Rueness 2005).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Viet Nam
World: China, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN:
World: Atlantic-Northeast, Canada, Europe, Germany, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Atlantic-Northwest, Denmark, France, Italy, Morocco, Pacific-Northeast, Spain, United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water Fisheries
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Spread is likely to occur on vectors such as fishing and leisure boats (Nyberg 2007 in Nyberg et al. 2009).Fishing gear (Nyberg et al. 2009).
 
IMPACTS
Gracilaria vermiculophylla inhibits the growth and survival of native algae through competition (Council of Europe 2009; Hamman et al. n.d.). G. vermiculophylla is reported to be a problem in fishing industries through fouling of nets (Freshwater et al. 2000).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1698 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
 
 
 
file icon Gymnodinium catenatumhot!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 338
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: naked dinoflagellate, estuarine dinoflagellate, chain-forming dinoflagellate
 
DESCRIPTION
Gymnodinium catenatum is a toxic, bloom forming species of microalgae. It is usually seen in long, swimming chains of tiny cells, with up to 32 cells in a chain (occasionally 64). It is also seen as solitary cells with a green-brown colour. The size of these cells ranges from 38 - 53 um long and 33 - 45 um wide. The cells are circular to squarish in shape, with many rounded organelles within them. Cysts of G. catenatum are brown, spherical and range in size from 45 - 50 um in diameter.
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Philippines, Singapore
WORLD: Argentina, Baha De La Paz, China, Cuba, Iberian Coastal, Japan, Korea, Republic Of, Mexico, Pacific-Eastern Central, Portugal, Spain, Venezuela, Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Hong Kong, Italy, Korea Democratic People’s Republic Of, Mediterranean and Black Sea, New Zealand, Uruguay
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat Ballast Water
Aquaculture and Fisheries
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ballast water can transport this organism long distances to new environments. Cysts of G. catenatum can be accidentally translocated through aquaculture and fisheries activities, such as in oyster cages or on mussel ropes.
 
IMPACTS
Toxins (saxitoxins and gonyautoxins) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum can cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP). Mussels, oysters and scallops from areas affected by G. catenatum blooms have been highly contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins, resulting in human poisonings (NIMPIS, 2002c).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gymnodinium catenatum. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=645 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
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