Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Senna occidentalishot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 281
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Caesalpiniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ant bush, arsenic bush, coffee senna, sicklepod, stinkweed.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or lives for more than one year but less that two, erect herb or shrub (0.5–2.5 m tall); stems reddish-purple, smooth, hairless or sparsely hairy, four-angled or grooved when young becoming greenish-brown and rounded.
Leaves: Green, once-divided (15–20 cm long), with 3–5 pairs of oppositely held egg-shaped or oval leaflets (3–10 cm long and 2–3 cm wide) with broad and rounded bases, tapering towards the end with pointed tips; conspicuous gland at the base of each leaf stalk; alternately held on stems on reddish stalks (3–5 cm long).
Flowers: Bright yellow (20–30 mm across) in small clusters of 2–6 flowers in forks of uppermost leaves.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flattened, slightly curled (75–130 mm long and 8–10 mm wide), held upright.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Coffee substitute, medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, managed pastures, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands can displace native plant species, and reduce livestock carrying capacities in managed and natural pastures. Being allelopathic, it inhibits the germination and growth of other plants. Studies have shown that it has a negative impact on maize (Arora, 2013) and cotton yields (Higgins et al., 1986), and is an alternative host for crop diseases (Suteri et al., 1979). The seeds of S. occidentalis are highly toxic, containing compounds that damage the liver, the vascular system and the heart and lungs of domestic livestock, often leading to death in cattle (Barros et al., 1999), horses (Riet-Correa et al., 1998), goats (Suliman et al., 1982; Suliman and Shommein, 1986), pigs (Martins et al., 1986), poultry (Haraguchi et al., 1998), and rabbits (O’Hara and Pierce, 1974). Consumption of the seeds in western Uttar Pradesh, in India, resulted in the deaths of nine children within five days (Vashishtha et al., 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Thunbergia grandiflorahot!Tooltip 10/04/2018 Hits: 278
ACANTHUS FAMILY
Acanthaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Bengal trumpet vine, blue thunbergia, blue trumpet vine, Indian sky flower
Cambodia: voer thnort
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Philippines: ag-agob, hagonoy, suga-suga, padawel, saromayag, kama-elaw
Viet Nam: dây bông xanh, bông báo
 
DESCRIPTION
A vigorous evergreen climber with rope-like stems (up to 15 m in height) with tuberous roots; young stems are green, hairy, square in cross-section, becoming brown and more rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green, somewhat hairy, simple, variable in shape from triangular with broad heart-shaped bases to egg-shaped with broad end at base (8–22 cm long and 3–15 cm wide), margins entire to irregularly toothed or with irregular pointed lobes, held opposite each other on stems.
Flowers: Pale-blue, violet or mauve with pale yellow or whitish throat, trumpet-shaped (3–8 cm long and 6–8 cm across), on elongated clusters; each flower on a stalk (4.5 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) with a rounded base (18 mm long and 13 mm wide) and a long tapered beak (2–5 cm long and about 7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Plantations, forest, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/ gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
This climber completely smothers other established plant species and prevents the regeneration of native species in invaded areas (Starr et al., 2003b). T. grandiflora has a heavy and extensive tuberous root system which can lead to riverbank destabilization and damage fences and building foundations (Motooka et al., 2003). In Queensland, Australia, it is having a negative impact on threatened lowland tropical rainforest that have been fragmented by agricultural and urban development (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007). It also climbs on to power lines causing power outages.
 

Source:

Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018

file icon Argemone mexicanahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 277
POPPY FAMILY
Papaveraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mexican poppy, Mexican thistle, prickly poppy
Indonesia: druju, celangkringan
Malaysia: chelang keriugan, pokok popi
Myanmar: kye-ja
Philippines: kachumba, kasubang-aso, diluariu
Thailand: fin naam
Viet Nam: cà dai hoa vàng, gai cua, mùi cua
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, very spiny herb (up to 0.9 m high); stems exude a yellow sap when cut.
Leaves: Grey or bluish-green, with prominent white veins and yellowmidvein (5–22 cm long and 3–7 cm wide), deep lobed with sharp spines; leaves of A. ochroleuca Sweet. are a darker shade of green.
Flowers: Bright yellow (2.5–5 cm across) as opposed to pale yellow or creamy white in A. ochroleuca.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), spiny, green turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (2.5–4 cm long), splitting into 3–6 lobes releasing small black seeds (1.5 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida (USA), Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, crops, managed pasture, riparian areas, gullies and dry river courses.
 
IMPACTS
Reduces plant diversity and has an inhibitory effect on the germination and seedling growth of vegetables (Hazarika and Sannigrahi, 2001). Weed residues may also affect the growth and development of bambara
groundnut and sorghum (Karikari et al., 2000). Ingestion of seeds by poultry can result in death, and grazing animals can be poisoned if the seeds are consumed in hay or chaff. Harvesting of crops in the presence
of this weed can also result in injuries. Edible vegetable oil, either accidentally contaminated with A. mexicana, or intentionally adulterated by unscrupulous traders, has resulted in epidemic dropsy in India. An
epidemic also occurred in South Africa following the contamination of wheat flour (Sharma et al., 1999). A. mexicana has been identified as an important allergen in India (Singh and Kumar, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: calliandra, red calliandra
Indonesia: kaliandra, kaliandra merah
Malaysia: kaliandra
Viet Nam: muong hoa pháo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, thornless, often multi-stemmed leguminous shrub or small tree [5–6 (–12 m) tall] with a trunk diameter of 20 (–30) cm.
Bark: White to red-brown and hairless, sometimes finely hairy.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided (10–19 cm long) with 6–20 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each with 19–60 pairs of linear, somewhat elongated and pointed leaflets (5–8 mm long and 1 mm wide).
Flowers: Red in terminal clusters up to 30 cm long with numerous long shiny red stamens, showy.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, straight, flattened (8–13 cm long and 1–1.6 cm wide) with thickened and raised margins splitting open, with each half curling back, held erect on stem.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, fodder, ornament, soil conservation, nitrogen fixation and green manure.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, plantation edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
It has the ability to form dense thickets, displacing native species, especially in riparian areas. It is an aggressive colonizer of disturbed habitats, is highly adaptable, and able to grow under a wide variety of soil and environmental conditions (Macqueen, 1992; Palmer et al., 1994). It has the potential to suppress other plants very quickly when competing for water and nutrients (CONABIO, 2014). In Kabale, Uganda, some farmers claimed that it competed with food crops, impacted negatively on soil nutrients and harboured pest birds. Calliandra also fixes nitrogen and as a result impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Jatropha gossypiifoliahot!Tooltip 10/12/2018 Hits: 276
SPURGE FAMILY
Euphorbiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American purging nut, bellyache bush, red fig-nut flower, red physic nut, wild cassava.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect shrub [1–3 (4) m tall]; older stems are thick and succulent-like; young branches are purplish and hairy; young shoots exude a brownish latex when damaged.
Leaves: Reddish-brown to dark bronze or purplish turning bright green with age, hairless, simple (4.5–10 cm long and 5–13 cm wide), usually with 3 or 5 deep lobes, 3–5 veins from the base, margins glandular and minutely toothed; leaf stalks are 6–9 cm long and covered in sticky hairs.
Flowers: Five dark red or deep purple petals with yellow centre, borne in branched clusters (8–15 cm long) at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), glossy green turning brown as they mature, three-lobed, slightly hairy, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides to almost round (about 12 mm long and 10 mm wide), containing three large light brown seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, natural oils, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open space, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, gullies and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
This weed forms dense thickets, especially in riparian areas where it readily displaces native plant species and prevents their regeneration. It also significantly reduces livestock carrying capacities outcompeting valuable forage species. Although the plant is not consumed by livestock, accidental ingestion does occur. In 1995, in northern Queensland, Australia, 312 head of livestock died (290 cattle, 7 horses and 15 goats) after accidentally consuming the plant during a drought (Csurhes, 1999).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
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