Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

DocumentsDate added

Order by : Name | Date | Hits [ Ascendant ]
file icon Mimosa diplotrichahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 563
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: creeping sensitive plant, nila grass, tropical blackberry
Cambodia: preah khlab damrei
Indonesia: jukut boring, putri malu, simeduri-dura
Lao PDR: nya nahm
Myanmar: tee-ka-yone-gyi
Philippines: aroma, hibi-hibi, kamit-kabag, makahiyang lalake
Thailand: maiyaraap luei
Viet Nam: trinh nu móc
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, biennial (living for longer than one year but less than two) or evergreen, scrambling, climbing, strongly branched shrub, forming dense thickets [2–3 (–6) m tall], woody at the base with age; stems green or purplish tinged, 4–5-angled in cross-section, covered with sharp, recurved, yellowish spines (3–6 mm long).
Leaves: Bright-green, twice-divided (10–20 cm long), 4–9 pairs of leaflet branchlets each with 12–30 pairs of small elongated leaflets (6–12 mm long and 1.5 mm wide) with pointed tips, leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Pinkish-violet or purplish, round heads (12 mm across), borne singly or in small groups on hairy stalks (3.5–16 mm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flat, softly spiny on edges, elongated (8–35 mm long and 3–10 mm wide); occur in clusters which break into oneseeded joints; seeds are light brown (1.9 mm long and 2.7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Erosion control, nitrogen fixation, forage for bees, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, crops, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, lowlands, wetlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers other plants and prevents their natural regeneration. Dense stands also prevent or inhibit the movement of livestock and wildlife. In Nigeria, when M. diplotricha density reached 630,000 plants per hectare, cassava root yield, 12 months after planting, was reduced by 80% (Alabi et al., 2001). It readily invades orchards and rice paddies reducing yields and increasing management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). On cattle ranches in Papua New Guinea, up to US$ 130,000 is spent annually on chemical control (Kuniata, 1994). In Thailand, 22 swamp buffaloes died 18–36 hours after eating M. diplotricha (Tungtrakanpoung and Rhienpanish, 1992). Trials in Queensland, Australia, indicated toxicity to sheep, and a report from Flores, Indonesia, suggests that it is toxic to pigs (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Miconia calvescenshot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 540
TIBOUCHINA FAMILY
Melastomataceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bush currant, miconia, purple plague, velvet tree
Viet Nam: cây micona
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree [4–8 (–16) m tall]; young stems are green, four-angled and covered in tiny star-shaped hairs; stems become brown and rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green above and bright purple below, hairless, simple, oval with pointed tips [17–40 (–100) cm long and 7–25 cm wide], margins entire or finely toothed, three-veined from base to tip of leaf; leaf stalks are 2–6 cm long.
Flowers: White or pinkish, small, held in large clusters (20–50 cm long) at end of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning bluish black or dark purple as they mature (about 6 mm across), containing 140–230 seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay and Peru.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament and in contaminated soil.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, plantations, riverbanks and coastal areas.
 
IMPACTS
Areas invaded become totally transformed due to the creation of deep shade which few native species can tolerate (Meyer, 1994). This weed now covers over two-thirds of the island of Tahiti, forming dense monotypic stands, that have overwhelmed the native forests, where between 40 and 50 of the 107 species endemic to Tahiti are thought to be on the verge of extinction (Meyer and Florence, 1996). Between 70 and 100 native plant species, including 40–50 species endemic to French Polynesia, are estimated to be directly threatened by M. calvescens with significant knock-on impacts on endemic birds and other organisms (Meyer and Florence, 1996). The lack of ground cover under infestations also contributes to higher rates of soil erosion. Impacts have let to infestations being termed the ‘green cancer’ of Tahiti and the ‘purple plague’ of Hawaii.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Leucaena leucocephalahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 530
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Sub-family: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: jumbie bean, lead tree, leucaena, wild tamarind
Cambodia: khtum tehs, krathum thet
Indonesia: petai cina
Lao PDR: kathin;kh’oonz, koong khaaw
Malaysia: lamtoro, petai belalang
Philippines: bayani, komkompitis, loyloy, palomaria
Thailand: kra thin, to-bao
Viet Nam: cây keo dau
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thornless shrub or small tree [2–10 (15) m high]; young stems green and densely covered in greyish-coloured hairs.
Bark: Smooth, greyish-brown with numerous small raised spots.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided [0.7–15 (–35) cm long] with small raised structure (gland) usually on leaf stalk, 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets, each 2–10 cm long and each bearing 5–22 pairs of leaflets that are somewhat elongated, almost parallel sided or swordshaped (7–21 mm long and 1.5–5 mm wide).
Flowers: White or pale yellow in globular clusters (12–30 mm across), borne singly or in groups of 2–3 located at the juncture of the leaf and stem.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown or reddish brown as they mature, elongated, almost straight (8–18 cm long and 2 cm wide), flattened but raised over the seeds, pointed tips; containing 10–25 hard seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Guatemala and Mexico.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, tannins, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands and coastal shrub.
 
IMPACTS
Forms large monocultures displacing native plant and animal species. In Hawaii, it is outcompeting open forest species (Cronk and Fuller, 1995), while on the Brazilian island of Fernando de Noronha, it impacts endemic flora. The invasion of leucaena has had a severe effect on the native plant community in the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, and may alter secondary succession, promoting the invasion and establishment of more aggressive alien plant species (Yoshida and Oka, 2004). In Guam, leucaena is preventing the establishment of indigenous species (B. Lawrence, pers. comm., in Walton, 2003). In Vanuatu, it can form dense monospecific thickets, threatening native plant species and is ‘very difficult to eradicate once established, rendering extensive areas unusable and inaccessible’ (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In the Erap Valley of Papua New Guinea, it forms monospecific stands in river valleys, replacing native riparian vegetation (G. Werren, pers. comm., in Walton, 2003).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Lantana camarahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 529
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: curse of India, lantana, Spanish flag, tickberry, prickly lantana, white sage
Cambodia: phka chenh chien, phka kang, phka arch meann
Indonesia: kembang telek, tembelekan, tahi ayam
Lao PDR: dok mai khiu
Myanmar: sein-na-ban
Philippines: asin-asin, bahu-bahu, sapinit, sapor, sari-sari, sibsibit
Thailand: pagaknong
Viet Nam: bông oi, cây ngu sac
 
DESCRIPTION
Compact, untidy long-lived shrub/scrambler (up to 2 m or higher), forming dense thickets; stems are usually green turning grey or brown with age, square in cross-section with short hairs and hooked/recurved prickles/thorns.
Leaves: Dark green, rough hairy, simple, egg-shaped (2–13 cm long and 1.5–7 cm wide) with pointed tips, margins toothed/rough, wrinkled appearance, held opposite each other on stems, smell strongly when crushed.
Flowers: Small red, pink, crimson, orange, yellow or white flowers borne in dense clusters (2–4 cm across), with each cluster containing about 20–40 flowers; clusters on stalks (2–10 cm long); individual flowers are
tubular (9–14 mm long and 4–10 mm across).
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially shiny green turning purplish-black when mature (5–8 mm across), one-seeded.
 
ORIGIN
Bahamas, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Mexico and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedging/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, disturbed land, wasteland, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, water courses, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Lantana forms dense impenetrable thickets reducing biodiversity and threatening the continued existence of a host of rare and endangered species. Turner and Downey (2010) identified 275 plant and 24 native animal species in Australia that are threatened by the presence of lantana. In crop production systems in Southeast Asia, it reduces yields and increases management costs for those growing durian, pineapple, banana and rubber (Waterhouse, 1993). It is also toxic to livestock with pastoral losses in Queensland in 1985, estimated to be A$ 7.7 million, as a result of 1,500 animal deaths, reductions in productivity, loss of pasture and control costs (van Oosterhout, 2004). In South Africa, lantana poisoning accounts for about 25% of all reported livestock poisoning by plants (Wells and Stirton, 1988). There have also been some recorded fatalities in people, after consumption of the green fruit. Lantana can also alter fire regimes, allowing fires to penetrate into forests and woodlands.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Jatropha gossypiifoliahot!Tooltip 10/12/2018 Hits: 545
SPURGE FAMILY
Euphorbiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American purging nut, bellyache bush, red fig-nut flower, red physic nut, wild cassava.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect shrub [1–3 (4) m tall]; older stems are thick and succulent-like; young branches are purplish and hairy; young shoots exude a brownish latex when damaged.
Leaves: Reddish-brown to dark bronze or purplish turning bright green with age, hairless, simple (4.5–10 cm long and 5–13 cm wide), usually with 3 or 5 deep lobes, 3–5 veins from the base, margins glandular and minutely toothed; leaf stalks are 6–9 cm long and covered in sticky hairs.
Flowers: Five dark red or deep purple petals with yellow centre, borne in branched clusters (8–15 cm long) at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), glossy green turning brown as they mature, three-lobed, slightly hairy, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides to almost round (about 12 mm long and 10 mm wide), containing three large light brown seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, natural oils, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open space, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, gullies and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
This weed forms dense thickets, especially in riparian areas where it readily displaces native plant species and prevents their regeneration. It also significantly reduces livestock carrying capacities outcompeting valuable forage species. Although the plant is not consumed by livestock, accidental ingestion does occur. In 1995, in northern Queensland, Australia, 312 head of livestock died (290 cattle, 7 horses and 15 goats) after accidentally consuming the plant during a drought (Csurhes, 1999).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>
Page 8 of 16