Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Merremia peltatahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 869
MORNING GLORY FAMILY
Convolvulaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: merremia
Indonesia: mantangan
Malaysia: akar sambaing
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen robust vine or climber, with large subterranean tubers; stems smooth (up to 30 m high) emitting a milky latex when damaged.
Leaves: Green, hairless above, purple veins below with scattered hairs, simple, almost round but abruptly tapering to a sharp point (7.5–30 cm long and 7–20 cm wide), held alternately on stems, leaf stalk attached to the underside of the leaf blade instead of at its base or margin (3–24 cm long).
Flowers: Usually white, funnel-shaped, large (5–6 cm wide), in clusters on stalks (15–30 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) (15 mm long), splitting into many valves; seeds brown.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain but assumed to be native to Pemba, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, northern Australia and eastwards into Polynesia to the Society Islands. Different biotype may be invasive in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Indonesia.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, land restoration and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps and woodland edges/gaps.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation to the detriment of plant and animal life. In Vanuatu, it is considered to be one of the most important weeds of plantation forestry and is one of two major specie sthreatening natural regeneration in logged or disturbed areas (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In Indonesia, it also inhibits and/or prevents the movement of threatened and rare species such as elephants, rhinos and tigers.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Limnocharis flavahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 836
WATER POPPY FAMILY
Limnocharitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bur head, limnocharis, sawah lettuce, velvetleaf, yellow burrhead
Cambodia: trakiet paong
Indonesia: bangeng, eceng, enceng, berek, gunda, genjer
Lao PDR: kaanz choong
Malaysia: jinjir, paku rawan
Thailand: bon cheen, bonchin, nangkwak, talapatrusi, taalapat ruesee
Viet Nam: cây cù nèo, kèo nèo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen clump-forming, aquatic, herbaceous, rooted to the ground and emerges above the water surface (20–120 cm tall); large fleshy leaves borne in clusters along a short thick erect stem (about 3 cm long and 3 cm wide), contains a milky sap.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, triangular to rounded (5–30 cm long and 4–25 cm wide), margins entire or wavy, borne on long three-angled (triangular) stalks (5–90 cm long).
Flowers: Yellow, in clusters containing 2–15 flowers at the top of three-angled stalks (20–120 cm long).
Fruits: Rounded ‘capsules’ (15–20 mm across), that split up into several floating segments when mature.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, water courses, floodplains, swamps, wetlands and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Dominates invaded water bodies displacing other aquatic plant and animal species. It has become a serious weed in rice paddies and chokes irrigation and drainage canals (Waterhouse, 2003) facilitating siltation and reducing water discharge capacity (Kotalawala, 1976). In some cases, infestations are so severe leading to the abandonment of rice fields. Invaded areas also provide ideal breeding grounds for disease vectors such as mosquitoes, contributing to the spread of diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever (Abhilash et al., 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Leucaena leucocephalahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 266
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Sub-family: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: jumbie bean, lead tree, leucaena, wild tamarind
Cambodia: khtum tehs, krathum thet
Indonesia: petai cina
Lao PDR: kathin;kh’oonz, koong khaaw
Malaysia: lamtoro, petai belalang
Philippines: bayani, komkompitis, loyloy, palomaria
Thailand: kra thin, to-bao
Viet Nam: cây keo dau
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thornless shrub or small tree [2–10 (15) m high]; young stems green and densely covered in greyish-coloured hairs.
Bark: Smooth, greyish-brown with numerous small raised spots.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided [0.7–15 (–35) cm long] with small raised structure (gland) usually on leaf stalk, 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets, each 2–10 cm long and each bearing 5–22 pairs of leaflets that are somewhat elongated, almost parallel sided or swordshaped (7–21 mm long and 1.5–5 mm wide).
Flowers: White or pale yellow in globular clusters (12–30 mm across), borne singly or in groups of 2–3 located at the juncture of the leaf and stem.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown or reddish brown as they mature, elongated, almost straight (8–18 cm long and 2 cm wide), flattened but raised over the seeds, pointed tips; containing 10–25 hard seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Guatemala and Mexico.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, tannins, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands and coastal shrub.
 
IMPACTS
Forms large monocultures displacing native plant and animal species. In Hawaii, it is outcompeting open forest species (Cronk and Fuller, 1995), while on the Brazilian island of Fernando de Noronha, it impacts endemic flora. The invasion of leucaena has had a severe effect on the native plant community in the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, and may alter secondary succession, promoting the invasion and establishment of more aggressive alien plant species (Yoshida and Oka, 2004). In Guam, leucaena is preventing the establishment of indigenous species (B. Lawrence, pers. comm., in Walton, 2003). In Vanuatu, it can form dense monospecific thickets, threatening native plant species and is ‘very difficult to eradicate once established, rendering extensive areas unusable and inaccessible’ (Bakeo and Qarani, 2005). In the Erap Valley of Papua New Guinea, it forms monospecific stands in river valleys, replacing native riparian vegetation (G. Werren, pers. comm., in Walton, 2003).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Lantana camarahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 251
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: curse of India, lantana, Spanish flag, tickberry, prickly lantana, white sage
Cambodia: phka chenh chien, phka kang, phka arch meann
Indonesia: kembang telek, tembelekan, tahi ayam
Lao PDR: dok mai khiu
Myanmar: sein-na-ban
Philippines: asin-asin, bahu-bahu, sapinit, sapor, sari-sari, sibsibit
Thailand: pagaknong
Viet Nam: bông oi, cây ngu sac
 
DESCRIPTION
Compact, untidy long-lived shrub/scrambler (up to 2 m or higher), forming dense thickets; stems are usually green turning grey or brown with age, square in cross-section with short hairs and hooked/recurved prickles/thorns.
Leaves: Dark green, rough hairy, simple, egg-shaped (2–13 cm long and 1.5–7 cm wide) with pointed tips, margins toothed/rough, wrinkled appearance, held opposite each other on stems, smell strongly when crushed.
Flowers: Small red, pink, crimson, orange, yellow or white flowers borne in dense clusters (2–4 cm across), with each cluster containing about 20–40 flowers; clusters on stalks (2–10 cm long); individual flowers are
tubular (9–14 mm long and 4–10 mm across).
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially shiny green turning purplish-black when mature (5–8 mm across), one-seeded.
 
ORIGIN
Bahamas, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Mexico and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedging/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, disturbed land, wasteland, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, water courses, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Lantana forms dense impenetrable thickets reducing biodiversity and threatening the continued existence of a host of rare and endangered species. Turner and Downey (2010) identified 275 plant and 24 native animal species in Australia that are threatened by the presence of lantana. In crop production systems in Southeast Asia, it reduces yields and increases management costs for those growing durian, pineapple, banana and rubber (Waterhouse, 1993). It is also toxic to livestock with pastoral losses in Queensland in 1985, estimated to be A$ 7.7 million, as a result of 1,500 animal deaths, reductions in productivity, loss of pasture and control costs (van Oosterhout, 2004). In South Africa, lantana poisoning accounts for about 25% of all reported livestock poisoning by plants (Wells and Stirton, 1988). There have also been some recorded fatalities in people, after consumption of the green fruit. Lantana can also alter fire regimes, allowing fires to penetrate into forests and woodlands.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Jatropha gossypiifoliahot!Tooltip 10/12/2018 Hits: 276
SPURGE FAMILY
Euphorbiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American purging nut, bellyache bush, red fig-nut flower, red physic nut, wild cassava.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, erect shrub [1–3 (4) m tall]; older stems are thick and succulent-like; young branches are purplish and hairy; young shoots exude a brownish latex when damaged.
Leaves: Reddish-brown to dark bronze or purplish turning bright green with age, hairless, simple (4.5–10 cm long and 5–13 cm wide), usually with 3 or 5 deep lobes, 3–5 veins from the base, margins glandular and minutely toothed; leaf stalks are 6–9 cm long and covered in sticky hairs.
Flowers: Five dark red or deep purple petals with yellow centre, borne in branched clusters (8–15 cm long) at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), glossy green turning brown as they mature, three-lobed, slightly hairy, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides to almost round (about 12 mm long and 10 mm wide), containing three large light brown seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, natural oils, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, urban open space, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, gullies and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
This weed forms dense thickets, especially in riparian areas where it readily displaces native plant species and prevents their regeneration. It also significantly reduces livestock carrying capacities outcompeting valuable forage species. Although the plant is not consumed by livestock, accidental ingestion does occur. In 1995, in northern Queensland, Australia, 312 head of livestock died (290 cattle, 7 horses and 15 goats) after accidentally consuming the plant during a drought (Csurhes, 1999).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
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