Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Myriophyllum aquaticumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 303
WATERMILFOIL FAMILY
Haloragaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian water milfoil, parrot’s feather, water feather Indonesia: bulu burung, paris
Viet Nam: rong xuong cá, rong co lông chim
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, rooted aquatic plant with terminal, leafy shoots emerging 20–50 cm above the water surface; stems yellowish green (2–5 m long and 5 mm thick), roots forming at the joints.
Leaves: Pale green or bluish green, feather-like, finely divided, elongated or oval with deeply divided margins (30–45 mm long and 15 mm wide), arranged in groups of 4–6 at the tips of the stems.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, solitary in axis of leaves.
Fruits: None
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers or streams.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations exclude native plants and have multiple negative impacts on water transport, fisheries and recreation, and can increase the abundance of mosquitoes. The high tannin content also means that fish do not eat the plant. In California, control costs of this weed over a two-year period were US$ 215,000 (Anderson, 1993). Additional impacts would be similar to those of water hyacinth.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Vachellia niloticahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 303
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: gum arabic, Nile thorn, prickly acacia, scented thorn
Indonesia: akasia
Viet Nam: keo a rap
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thorny tree or shrub [4–6 (–25) m]; usually singlestemmed, crown scattered when young, later umbrella-shaped; thorns greyish (up to 10 cm long); deep and well-developed root system.
Bark: In young trees tinge of orange and/or green; in older trees brown-black, rough and deeply grooved.
Leaves: Dark green, hairless, twice-divided with 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets (4 cm long), each with 10–25 pairs of leaflets, which are narrow and somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–6 mm long and 0.5– .5 mm wide); pair of spines (1–5 cm long) at base of each group of leaves in young stems.
Flowers: Pale to golden yellow globular flowerheads (1–1.5 cm across) on 2 cm long stalks, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning black as they mature, straight or slightly curved (10–20 cm long and 5–17 mm wide), constrictions between each seed in the pod resemble a string of pearls.
 
ORIGIN
India, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tools, medicine, chicorysubstitute in coffee, fodder, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, windbreak, firebreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, woodland edges/gaps, savannah and natural pasture.
 
IMPACTS
In Queensland, Australia, tree cover of just 25–30% has reduced the amount of pasture by 50% (Carter, 1994). Dense thickets also make it difficult to herd livestock, and animals have reduced access to water. In Indonesia, A. nilotica in Baluran National Park has reduced the amount of grazing available for herbivores, threatening the continued existence of the endangered banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton; Bovidae). Infestations also contribute to increase soil erosion. Because the tree fixes nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Clidemia hirtahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 299
TIBOUCHINA FAMILY
Melastomataceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Koster’s curse, soap bush
Indonesia: harendong bulu
Viet Nam: co saphony
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub [0.5–3 (–5) m tall], branchlets rounded, covered with large reddish-brown hairs/bristles.
Leaves: Light green, upper surfaces with a few hairs, lower surfaces more densely hairy, simple, oval or egg-shaped (5–18 cm long and 3–8 cm wide) with pointed tips, 5–7 prominent veins from the base running almost parallel; margins finely toothed, leaves appear wrinkled or pleated, leaves held opposite each other on stem.
Flowers: White or sometimes pale pink, in clusters in the leaf forks or tips of branches, on a short flower stalk (0.5–1 mm long); base of flower is swollen into a cup-shaped structure.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), dark blue, purplish or blackish, globular (4–9 mm across), covered in hairs/bristles; seeds are light brown (0.5–0.75 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, pasture, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps and riversides.
 
IMPACTS
This invasive plant has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plant species. Smith (1985) characterized the impacts of C.hirta as ‘devastating’ in Hawaii, where it threatens the extinction of endemic species. In Tanzania, it suppresses native herbs (Pocs, 1989), while in Fiji, it renders grazing land useless and retards the development of rubber and cocoa plantations. In Southeast Asia, it invades orchards and rubber and oil palm plantations where it reduces yields and increases management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). It came to be known as ‘Koster’s curse’ after being accidentally introduced to Fiji by Koster and its subsequent impacts
(curse) on plantation crops. It is also toxic to livestock (Francis, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Thunbergia grandiflorahot!Tooltip 10/04/2018 Hits: 297
ACANTHUS FAMILY
Acanthaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Bengal trumpet vine, blue thunbergia, blue trumpet vine, Indian sky flower
Cambodia: voer thnort
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Philippines: ag-agob, hagonoy, suga-suga, padawel, saromayag, kama-elaw
Viet Nam: dây bông xanh, bông báo
 
DESCRIPTION
A vigorous evergreen climber with rope-like stems (up to 15 m in height) with tuberous roots; young stems are green, hairy, square in cross-section, becoming brown and more rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green, somewhat hairy, simple, variable in shape from triangular with broad heart-shaped bases to egg-shaped with broad end at base (8–22 cm long and 3–15 cm wide), margins entire to irregularly toothed or with irregular pointed lobes, held opposite each other on stems.
Flowers: Pale-blue, violet or mauve with pale yellow or whitish throat, trumpet-shaped (3–8 cm long and 6–8 cm across), on elongated clusters; each flower on a stalk (4.5 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) with a rounded base (18 mm long and 13 mm wide) and a long tapered beak (2–5 cm long and about 7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Plantations, forest, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/ gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
This climber completely smothers other established plant species and prevents the regeneration of native species in invaded areas (Starr et al., 2003b). T. grandiflora has a heavy and extensive tuberous root system which can lead to riverbank destabilization and damage fences and building foundations (Motooka et al., 2003). In Queensland, Australia, it is having a negative impact on threatened lowland tropical rainforest that have been fragmented by agricultural and urban development (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007). It also climbs on to power lines causing power outages.
 

Source:

Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018

file icon Ageratina adenophorahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 296
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cat weed, crofton weed, hemp agrimony, Mexican devil.
 
DESCRIPTION
A multi-stemmed evergreen herb or soft shrub [1–2 (–3) m high], young stems green, reddish or purplish covered in sticky hairs becoming woody and brownish-green or brown when mature.
Leaves: Dark green, simple, diamond-shaped or almost triangular (4–15 cm long and 3–9 cm wide) with toothed margins, three-veined from the base, held opposite each other on the stem on long stalks (about 1–6 cm long), non-aromatic.
Flowers: White flowerheads (5–8 mm across) in terminal clusters at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), bristly (about 2 mm long and 0.3–0.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Trailing branches easily root at the nodes on contact with the soil, forming dense impenetrable stands resulting in the loss of biodiversity. In Australia, infestations pose a threat to rare and endangered species. It also reduces crop yields, reduces livestockcarrying capacities and restricts movement of livestock and machinery. In Australia, it spreads so fast that dairy farmers and banana growers abandoned their land (Auld, 1969, 1970; Holm et al.,1991; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It is unpalatable to cattle and toxic to horses, who readily consume it if present.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
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