Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Clidemia hirtahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 270
TIBOUCHINA FAMILY
Melastomataceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Koster’s curse, soap bush
Indonesia: harendong bulu
Viet Nam: co saphony
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub [0.5–3 (–5) m tall], branchlets rounded, covered with large reddish-brown hairs/bristles.
Leaves: Light green, upper surfaces with a few hairs, lower surfaces more densely hairy, simple, oval or egg-shaped (5–18 cm long and 3–8 cm wide) with pointed tips, 5–7 prominent veins from the base running almost parallel; margins finely toothed, leaves appear wrinkled or pleated, leaves held opposite each other on stem.
Flowers: White or sometimes pale pink, in clusters in the leaf forks or tips of branches, on a short flower stalk (0.5–1 mm long); base of flower is swollen into a cup-shaped structure.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), dark blue, purplish or blackish, globular (4–9 mm across), covered in hairs/bristles; seeds are light brown (0.5–0.75 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, pasture, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps and riversides.
 
IMPACTS
This invasive plant has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plant species. Smith (1985) characterized the impacts of C.hirta as ‘devastating’ in Hawaii, where it threatens the extinction of endemic species. In Tanzania, it suppresses native herbs (Pocs, 1989), while in Fiji, it renders grazing land useless and retards the development of rubber and cocoa plantations. In Southeast Asia, it invades orchards and rubber and oil palm plantations where it reduces yields and increases management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). It came to be known as ‘Koster’s curse’ after being accidentally introduced to Fiji by Koster and its subsequent impacts
(curse) on plantation crops. It is also toxic to livestock (Francis, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 268
MULBERRY FAMILY
Moraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
 
DESCRIPTION
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Hedychium coronariumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 267
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: butterfly ginger, garland flower, garland lily, ginger lily, white butterfly ginger lily, white ginger, white ginger-lily, wild ginger
Indonesia: gondasuli, gandasoli, mandasuli
Malaysia: gandasuli, suli
Philippines: kamia, jing hua
Thailand: hanghong, hun kaeo, mahaahong, tha haan
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen herbaceous plant [1–2.5 (–2.5) m tall] which produces a thick mat of creeping underground stems (2.5–5 cm across) close to the soil surface, stems are reddish at base and covered by leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasp stem).
Leaves: Green, glossy, smooth, hairless, simple, sword-shaped or somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides narrowed to a slender point (50–60 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire with
prominent midvein; leaves held alternately on stem.
Flowers: White, at the tip of each unbranched stem, showy, fragrant.
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), orange-yellow, dry, smooth, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2.5–3.5 cm long) containing many seeds (6 mm long and 4 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Taiwan.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dam edges, ponds, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Forms extensive thickets which disrupt water flow in channels and displace and suppress the regeneration of native wetland plants. In Brazil, dense infestations have caused the localized extinction of Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora), a rare invertebrate, in a nature reserve established to protect it (Soares and Barreto, 2008). White ginger is a threat to Clermontia samuelii Forbes (Campanulaceae) and Labordia tinifolia A. Gray var. lanaiensis Sherff. (Loganiaceae), two endemic plant species on the Maui Nui group of islands in the Hawaiian Islands (USFWS, 1999). In St Lucia it may be replacing the rare indigenous orchid Habenaria monorrhiza [Sw] Rchb.f (Orchidaceae) (Krauss, 2012). The plant is also toxic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Ageratina adenophorahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 267
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cat weed, crofton weed, hemp agrimony, Mexican devil.
 
DESCRIPTION
A multi-stemmed evergreen herb or soft shrub [1–2 (–3) m high], young stems green, reddish or purplish covered in sticky hairs becoming woody and brownish-green or brown when mature.
Leaves: Dark green, simple, diamond-shaped or almost triangular (4–15 cm long and 3–9 cm wide) with toothed margins, three-veined from the base, held opposite each other on the stem on long stalks (about 1–6 cm long), non-aromatic.
Flowers: White flowerheads (5–8 mm across) in terminal clusters at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), bristly (about 2 mm long and 0.3–0.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Trailing branches easily root at the nodes on contact with the soil, forming dense impenetrable stands resulting in the loss of biodiversity. In Australia, infestations pose a threat to rare and endangered species. It also reduces crop yields, reduces livestockcarrying capacities and restricts movement of livestock and machinery. In Australia, it spreads so fast that dairy farmers and banana growers abandoned their land (Auld, 1969, 1970; Holm et al.,1991; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It is unpalatable to cattle and toxic to horses, who readily consume it if present.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Senna occidentalishot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 265
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Caesalpiniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ant bush, arsenic bush, coffee senna, sicklepod, stinkweed.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or lives for more than one year but less that two, erect herb or shrub (0.5–2.5 m tall); stems reddish-purple, smooth, hairless or sparsely hairy, four-angled or grooved when young becoming greenish-brown and rounded.
Leaves: Green, once-divided (15–20 cm long), with 3–5 pairs of oppositely held egg-shaped or oval leaflets (3–10 cm long and 2–3 cm wide) with broad and rounded bases, tapering towards the end with pointed tips; conspicuous gland at the base of each leaf stalk; alternately held on stems on reddish stalks (3–5 cm long).
Flowers: Bright yellow (20–30 mm across) in small clusters of 2–6 flowers in forks of uppermost leaves.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flattened, slightly curled (75–130 mm long and 8–10 mm wide), held upright.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Coffee substitute, medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, managed pastures, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands can displace native plant species, and reduce livestock carrying capacities in managed and natural pastures. Being allelopathic, it inhibits the germination and growth of other plants. Studies have shown that it has a negative impact on maize (Arora, 2013) and cotton yields (Higgins et al., 1986), and is an alternative host for crop diseases (Suteri et al., 1979). The seeds of S. occidentalis are highly toxic, containing compounds that damage the liver, the vascular system and the heart and lungs of domestic livestock, often leading to death in cattle (Barros et al., 1999), horses (Riet-Correa et al., 1998), goats (Suliman et al., 1982; Suliman and Shommein, 1986), pigs (Martins et al., 1986), poultry (Haraguchi et al., 1998), and rabbits (O’Hara and Pierce, 1974). Consumption of the seeds in western Uttar Pradesh, in India, resulted in the deaths of nine children within five days (Vashishtha et al., 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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