Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Vachellia niloticahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 351
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: gum arabic, Nile thorn, prickly acacia, scented thorn
Indonesia: akasia
Viet Nam: keo a rap
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thorny tree or shrub [4–6 (–25) m]; usually singlestemmed, crown scattered when young, later umbrella-shaped; thorns greyish (up to 10 cm long); deep and well-developed root system.
Bark: In young trees tinge of orange and/or green; in older trees brown-black, rough and deeply grooved.
Leaves: Dark green, hairless, twice-divided with 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets (4 cm long), each with 10–25 pairs of leaflets, which are narrow and somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–6 mm long and 0.5– .5 mm wide); pair of spines (1–5 cm long) at base of each group of leaves in young stems.
Flowers: Pale to golden yellow globular flowerheads (1–1.5 cm across) on 2 cm long stalks, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning black as they mature, straight or slightly curved (10–20 cm long and 5–17 mm wide), constrictions between each seed in the pod resemble a string of pearls.
 
ORIGIN
India, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tools, medicine, chicorysubstitute in coffee, fodder, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, windbreak, firebreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, woodland edges/gaps, savannah and natural pasture.
 
IMPACTS
In Queensland, Australia, tree cover of just 25–30% has reduced the amount of pasture by 50% (Carter, 1994). Dense thickets also make it difficult to herd livestock, and animals have reduced access to water. In Indonesia, A. nilotica in Baluran National Park has reduced the amount of grazing available for herbivores, threatening the continued existence of the endangered banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton; Bovidae). Infestations also contribute to increase soil erosion. Because the tree fixes nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Myriophyllum aquaticumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 353
WATERMILFOIL FAMILY
Haloragaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian water milfoil, parrot’s feather, water feather Indonesia: bulu burung, paris
Viet Nam: rong xuong cá, rong co lông chim
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, rooted aquatic plant with terminal, leafy shoots emerging 20–50 cm above the water surface; stems yellowish green (2–5 m long and 5 mm thick), roots forming at the joints.
Leaves: Pale green or bluish green, feather-like, finely divided, elongated or oval with deeply divided margins (30–45 mm long and 15 mm wide), arranged in groups of 4–6 at the tips of the stems.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, solitary in axis of leaves.
Fruits: None
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers or streams.
 
IMPACTS
Dense infestations exclude native plants and have multiple negative impacts on water transport, fisheries and recreation, and can increase the abundance of mosquitoes. The high tannin content also means that fish do not eat the plant. In California, control costs of this weed over a two-year period were US$ 215,000 (Anderson, 1993). Additional impacts would be similar to those of water hyacinth.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Acacia mangiumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 353
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: brown salwood, hickory wattle, mangium
Cambodia: acacia sleuk thom
Indonesia: mangge hutan, nak, sabah salwood, tongke hutan
Philippines: maber
Thailand: krathinthepha
Viet Nam: keo tai tuong
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tree with no thorns/spines (30–35 m tall) and often with a straight trunk [25–50 (–90) cm in diameter].
Bark: Greenish and smooth in young trees; rough, greyish brown to dark brown, hard, fissured near the base of older trees.
Leaves: Dark green, ‘leaves’ are expanded leaf stalks called phyllodes, straight on one side and slightly curved on the other (25 cm long and 3.5–10 cm wide), 4–5 main longitudinal veins, gland conspicuous at the base of the phyllodes.
Flowers: Numerous tiny white or cream flowers in loose spikes (5–12 cm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature (8–10 cm long and 0.3–0.5 cm wide), initially straight and broad but irregularly coiled when ripe; seeds are black and shiny (3–5 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), attached to the pods by an orange-to-red folded appendage.
 
ORIGIN
Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, fibre, tannins, shade, shelter and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, croplands, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and coastal areas.
 
IMPACTS
In forests in Brunei A. mangium has displaced many native plants and, in particular, heath forest species (Osunkoya et al., 2005). The tree has also invaded fruit and coffee farms and has a negative impact on the germination and growth of two local rice varieties (Ismail and Metali, 2014). It also uses significant amounts of water, more that the natural vegetation that it replaces. By fixing nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 9 October 2018
file icon Chromolaena odoratahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 353
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: chromolaena, devil weed, paraffin bush, Siam weed, triffid weed, turpentine weed
Cambodia: tuntrien khaet
Indonesia: kerinyu, tekelan
Lao PDR: nya khi law
Myanmar: kone-be-da, ne-da-ban, zama-ni
Philippines: dalayday, gonoy, hagonoy, talpus-palad
Thailand: saap suea
Viet Nam: co lào
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub, which may take the form of a scrambler when growing among trees (3–7 m high), often forming dense thickets; stems yellowish-green and somewhat hairy, woody towards the base with wide-spreading branches; deep taproot.
Leaves: Light green, hairy, simple, triangular (5–12 cm long and 3–7 cm wide), pointed, margins toothed, three conspicuous veins from the base; leaves held opposite each other on stem, smell strongly of turpentine when crushed.
Flowers: Mauve, in cylindrical heads (about 10 mm long and 3 mm wide) clustered at the ends of stems.
Fruits: Achene (small, dry, one-seeded fruit that doesn’t open at maturity), straw-coloured, bristly (4–5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, plantation crops, managed pastures, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, savannah, natural pasture, riparian vegetation, lowlands 
and floodplains.
 
IMPACTS
One mature plant can produce approximately one million seeds per year. Its ability to form dense impenetrable thickets leads to the displacement of native plant species and the dry stems and leaves, which are rich in oils, also increase fire intensities (McFadyen, 2004) contributing to additional biodiversity loss. In South Africa, infestations have a negative impact on the breeding biology of the Nile crocodile (Leslie and Spotila, 2001), while in Cameroon, it displaces native species in the family Zingiberaceae, a major food source for the endangered western lowland gorilla (van der Hoeven and Prins, 2007). In Southeast Asia, it is also a serious weed of oil palm, rubber, coffee, cashew, fruit and forestry (Waterhouse, 1993). In fact ‘some agricultural areas in Southeast Asia have been abandoned because Siam weed has taken over pasture and crops’ (CRC for Weed Management, 2003). It also causes serious health problems in livestock and people (Soerohaldoko, 1971; Sajise et al., 1974) and significantly reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Cestrum aurantiacumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 354
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: orange cestrum, orange jessamine, yellow cestrum.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, much-branched, half-climbing shrub [1–2 (–6m) high], sparsely hairy stems and leaves; stems and leaves bruise easily, emitting an unpleasant smell.
Leaves: Light green, hairless, oval to egg-shaped (7–13 cm long and 2.5–7 cm wide), leaf stalk 1–4 cm long.
Flowers: Orange-yellow, tubular (17–21 mm long), 10–15 in axillary and terminal clusters.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), white, spongy, round, small (10 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Guatemala and probably elsewhere in Central America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, savannah, riversides and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Readily ‘climbs’ into trees and over shrubs, smothering native vegetation and impoverishing biodiversity. In Kenya, C. aurantiacum has invaded over 4,000 hectares of the Cherangany Forest displacing valuable forage species. It is toxic to people and to livestock and has caused numerous cattle deaths. Cattle that have consumed the plant become tetchy, before becoming paralysed and dying. The unripe berries are also fatal if consumed by sheep, and its leaves lead to non-fatal poisoning (Bizimana, 1994). According to the community in Cherangany Forest, the species has also had a negative impact on bee populations.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
 
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