Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Cestrum aurantiacumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 269
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: orange cestrum, orange jessamine, yellow cestrum.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, much-branched, half-climbing shrub [1–2 (–6m) high], sparsely hairy stems and leaves; stems and leaves bruise easily, emitting an unpleasant smell.
Leaves: Light green, hairless, oval to egg-shaped (7–13 cm long and 2.5–7 cm wide), leaf stalk 1–4 cm long.
Flowers: Orange-yellow, tubular (17–21 mm long), 10–15 in axillary and terminal clusters.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), white, spongy, round, small (10 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Guatemala and probably elsewhere in Central America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, savannah, riversides and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Readily ‘climbs’ into trees and over shrubs, smothering native vegetation and impoverishing biodiversity. In Kenya, C. aurantiacum has invaded over 4,000 hectares of the Cherangany Forest displacing valuable forage species. It is toxic to people and to livestock and has caused numerous cattle deaths. Cattle that have consumed the plant become tetchy, before becoming paralysed and dying. The unripe berries are also fatal if consumed by sheep, and its leaves lead to non-fatal poisoning (Bizimana, 1994). According to the community in Cherangany Forest, the species has also had a negative impact on bee populations.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
 
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: calliandra, red calliandra
Indonesia: kaliandra, kaliandra merah
Malaysia: kaliandra
Viet Nam: muong hoa pháo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, thornless, often multi-stemmed leguminous shrub or small tree [5–6 (–12 m) tall] with a trunk diameter of 20 (–30) cm.
Bark: White to red-brown and hairless, sometimes finely hairy.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided (10–19 cm long) with 6–20 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each with 19–60 pairs of linear, somewhat elongated and pointed leaflets (5–8 mm long and 1 mm wide).
Flowers: Red in terminal clusters up to 30 cm long with numerous long shiny red stamens, showy.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, straight, flattened (8–13 cm long and 1–1.6 cm wide) with thickened and raised margins splitting open, with each half curling back, held erect on stem.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, fodder, ornament, soil conservation, nitrogen fixation and green manure.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, plantation edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
It has the ability to form dense thickets, displacing native species, especially in riparian areas. It is an aggressive colonizer of disturbed habitats, is highly adaptable, and able to grow under a wide variety of soil and environmental conditions (Macqueen, 1992; Palmer et al., 1994). It has the potential to suppress other plants very quickly when competing for water and nutrients (CONABIO, 2014). In Kabale, Uganda, some farmers claimed that it competed with food crops, impacted negatively on soil nutrients and harboured pest birds. Calliandra also fixes nitrogen and as a result impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 287
MULBERRY FAMILY
Moraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
 
DESCRIPTION
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Austroeupatorium inulifoliumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 290
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: austroeupatorium
Indonesia: kirinyuh, babanjaran
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen spreading, scrambling shrub [1–2.8 (–5) m tall]; stems covered with dense short hairs.
Leaves: Dark green above, pale green and covered with short fine hairs below; spear-shaped (7–18 cm long and 2.5–8 cm wide), leaves held opposite each other on stem on wedge-shaped leaf stalks (0.5–3 cm long).
Flowers: White in terminal, cylindrical heads (5–6 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), 8–15 flowers in each head, fragrant.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity) brown, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides, angular (1.5 mm long), with a whitish ring of hairs (pappus) (4 mm long) on the top of the fruit.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, perennial crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, grasslands, savannah, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and invades areas planted with perennial crops reducing yields and increasing management costs. In the Philippines, it forms dense thickets in rubber, tea and rosella plantations, upland rice plantations and in clearings of secondary forests (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998). In Sri Lanka, A. inulifolium has spread into the Knuckles Conservation Area, and has invaded many ecosystems such as grasslands, plantations and roadsides. It is unpalatable to livestock and reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Ageratina adenophorahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 283
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cat weed, crofton weed, hemp agrimony, Mexican devil.
 
DESCRIPTION
A multi-stemmed evergreen herb or soft shrub [1–2 (–3) m high], young stems green, reddish or purplish covered in sticky hairs becoming woody and brownish-green or brown when mature.
Leaves: Dark green, simple, diamond-shaped or almost triangular (4–15 cm long and 3–9 cm wide) with toothed margins, three-veined from the base, held opposite each other on the stem on long stalks (about 1–6 cm long), non-aromatic.
Flowers: White flowerheads (5–8 mm across) in terminal clusters at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), bristly (about 2 mm long and 0.3–0.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Trailing branches easily root at the nodes on contact with the soil, forming dense impenetrable stands resulting in the loss of biodiversity. In Australia, infestations pose a threat to rare and endangered species. It also reduces crop yields, reduces livestockcarrying capacities and restricts movement of livestock and machinery. In Australia, it spreads so fast that dairy farmers and banana growers abandoned their land (Auld, 1969, 1970; Holm et al.,1991; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It is unpalatable to cattle and toxic to horses, who readily consume it if present.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
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