Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Austroeupatorium inulifoliumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 250
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: austroeupatorium
Indonesia: kirinyuh, babanjaran
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen spreading, scrambling shrub [1–2.8 (–5) m tall]; stems covered with dense short hairs.
Leaves: Dark green above, pale green and covered with short fine hairs below; spear-shaped (7–18 cm long and 2.5–8 cm wide), leaves held opposite each other on stem on wedge-shaped leaf stalks (0.5–3 cm long).
Flowers: White in terminal, cylindrical heads (5–6 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), 8–15 flowers in each head, fragrant.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity) brown, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides, angular (1.5 mm long), with a whitish ring of hairs (pappus) (4 mm long) on the top of the fruit.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, perennial crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, grasslands, savannah, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and invades areas planted with perennial crops reducing yields and increasing management costs. In the Philippines, it forms dense thickets in rubber, tea and rosella plantations, upland rice plantations and in clearings of secondary forests (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998). In Sri Lanka, A. inulifolium has spread into the Knuckles Conservation Area, and has invaded many ecosystems such as grasslands, plantations and roadsides. It is unpalatable to livestock and reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 251
MULBERRY FAMILY
Moraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
 
DESCRIPTION
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: calliandra, red calliandra
Indonesia: kaliandra, kaliandra merah
Malaysia: kaliandra
Viet Nam: muong hoa pháo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, thornless, often multi-stemmed leguminous shrub or small tree [5–6 (–12 m) tall] with a trunk diameter of 20 (–30) cm.
Bark: White to red-brown and hairless, sometimes finely hairy.
Leaves: Dark green, twice-divided (10–19 cm long) with 6–20 pairs of leaflet branchlets, each with 19–60 pairs of linear, somewhat elongated and pointed leaflets (5–8 mm long and 1 mm wide).
Flowers: Red in terminal clusters up to 30 cm long with numerous long shiny red stamens, showy.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, straight, flattened (8–13 cm long and 1–1.6 cm wide) with thickened and raised margins splitting open, with each half curling back, held erect on stem.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, fodder, ornament, soil conservation, nitrogen fixation and green manure.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, plantation edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
It has the ability to form dense thickets, displacing native species, especially in riparian areas. It is an aggressive colonizer of disturbed habitats, is highly adaptable, and able to grow under a wide variety of soil and environmental conditions (Macqueen, 1992; Palmer et al., 1994). It has the potential to suppress other plants very quickly when competing for water and nutrients (CONABIO, 2014). In Kabale, Uganda, some farmers claimed that it competed with food crops, impacted negatively on soil nutrients and harboured pest birds. Calliandra also fixes nitrogen and as a result impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Cestrum aurantiacumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 244
TOMATO FAMILY
Solanaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: orange cestrum, orange jessamine, yellow cestrum.
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, much-branched, half-climbing shrub [1–2 (–6m) high], sparsely hairy stems and leaves; stems and leaves bruise easily, emitting an unpleasant smell.
Leaves: Light green, hairless, oval to egg-shaped (7–13 cm long and 2.5–7 cm wide), leaf stalk 1–4 cm long.
Flowers: Orange-yellow, tubular (17–21 mm long), 10–15 in axillary and terminal clusters.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), white, spongy, round, small (10 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Guatemala and probably elsewhere in Central America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, savannah, riversides and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Readily ‘climbs’ into trees and over shrubs, smothering native vegetation and impoverishing biodiversity. In Kenya, C. aurantiacum has invaded over 4,000 hectares of the Cherangany Forest displacing valuable forage species. It is toxic to people and to livestock and has caused numerous cattle deaths. Cattle that have consumed the plant become tetchy, before becoming paralysed and dying. The unripe berries are also fatal if consumed by sheep, and its leaves lead to non-fatal poisoning (Bizimana, 1994). According to the community in Cherangany Forest, the species has also had a negative impact on bee populations.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
 
file icon Chromolaena odoratahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 255
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: chromolaena, devil weed, paraffin bush, Siam weed, triffid weed, turpentine weed
Cambodia: tuntrien khaet
Indonesia: kerinyu, tekelan
Lao PDR: nya khi law
Myanmar: kone-be-da, ne-da-ban, zama-ni
Philippines: dalayday, gonoy, hagonoy, talpus-palad
Thailand: saap suea
Viet Nam: co lào
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub, which may take the form of a scrambler when growing among trees (3–7 m high), often forming dense thickets; stems yellowish-green and somewhat hairy, woody towards the base with wide-spreading branches; deep taproot.
Leaves: Light green, hairy, simple, triangular (5–12 cm long and 3–7 cm wide), pointed, margins toothed, three conspicuous veins from the base; leaves held opposite each other on stem, smell strongly of turpentine when crushed.
Flowers: Mauve, in cylindrical heads (about 10 mm long and 3 mm wide) clustered at the ends of stems.
Fruits: Achene (small, dry, one-seeded fruit that doesn’t open at maturity), straw-coloured, bristly (4–5 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, plantation crops, managed pastures, drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, savannah, natural pasture, riparian vegetation, lowlands 
and floodplains.
 
IMPACTS
One mature plant can produce approximately one million seeds per year. Its ability to form dense impenetrable thickets leads to the displacement of native plant species and the dry stems and leaves, which are rich in oils, also increase fire intensities (McFadyen, 2004) contributing to additional biodiversity loss. In South Africa, infestations have a negative impact on the breeding biology of the Nile crocodile (Leslie and Spotila, 2001), while in Cameroon, it displaces native species in the family Zingiberaceae, a major food source for the endangered western lowland gorilla (van der Hoeven and Prins, 2007). In Southeast Asia, it is also a serious weed of oil palm, rubber, coffee, cashew, fruit and forestry (Waterhouse, 1993). In fact ‘some agricultural areas in Southeast Asia have been abandoned because Siam weed has taken over pasture and crops’ (CRC for Weed Management, 2003). It also causes serious health problems in livestock and people (Soerohaldoko, 1971; Sajise et al., 1974) and significantly reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
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