Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Broussonetia papyriferahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 474
MULBERRY FAMILY
Moraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: paper mulberry, tapa cloth tree
Cambodia: krung tehs, mon barang
Indonesia: daluang, saeh
Myanmar: malaing
Thailand: por-gra-saa, por-saa, ton-saa
Viet Nam: cây duong
 
DESCRIPTION
Small tree or shrub with milky sap (20 m or higher) and a trunk diameter of 0.6 m; round or spreading crown, branches smooth and mottled grey, marked with orange-tan stipular scars, shallow rooted; sheds most of its
leaves at the end of the growing season.
Bark: Tan or light grey with pale orange to light tan stripes, becoming yellowish with age, smooth to slightly fissured.
Leaves: Greyish, rough surface above and fuzzy-downy below, simple, shape variable – either egg-shaped with a broad and round base tapering towards the end, heart-shaped or deeply lobed (7–20 cm long), margins with forward-pointing fine projections or teeth; held alternately or almost opposite each other on stems; leaf stalks are 3–10 cm long.
Flowers: Male flowers yellowish-white in clusters (3.5–7.5 cm); female flowers in rounded clusters, round heads (about 1.3 cm wide), hairy.
Fruits: Syncarp (a fleshy compound fruit), berry-like, initially green turning red, purple to orange as it matures, fleshy, round (1–2 cm wide) with many embedded or protruding tiny red seeds.
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, fodder, paper, pulp, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands that displace native species, prevent forest regeneration and reduce water availability. In Pakistan, B. papyrifera limits the growth of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Ziziphus sp. In the Philippines, native species such as Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae), Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Melanolepis multiglandulosus (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. (Euphorbiaceae), Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae), Ficus septica Burm., Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem (Araliaceae), and other species were displaced by paper mulberry (Baguinon et al., 2003). Paper mulberry produces considerable amounts of allergenic pollen which has been shown to exacerbate asthma in sufferers. In Islamabad, Pakistan, paper mulberry can account for 75% of the total pollen count contributing to ill health and even death in the old and infirm.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Vachellia niloticahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 469
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: gum arabic, Nile thorn, prickly acacia, scented thorn
Indonesia: akasia
Viet Nam: keo a rap
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thorny tree or shrub [4–6 (–25) m]; usually singlestemmed, crown scattered when young, later umbrella-shaped; thorns greyish (up to 10 cm long); deep and well-developed root system.
Bark: In young trees tinge of orange and/or green; in older trees brown-black, rough and deeply grooved.
Leaves: Dark green, hairless, twice-divided with 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets (4 cm long), each with 10–25 pairs of leaflets, which are narrow and somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–6 mm long and 0.5– .5 mm wide); pair of spines (1–5 cm long) at base of each group of leaves in young stems.
Flowers: Pale to golden yellow globular flowerheads (1–1.5 cm across) on 2 cm long stalks, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning black as they mature, straight or slightly curved (10–20 cm long and 5–17 mm wide), constrictions between each seed in the pod resemble a string of pearls.
 
ORIGIN
India, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tools, medicine, chicorysubstitute in coffee, fodder, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, windbreak, firebreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, woodland edges/gaps, savannah and natural pasture.
 
IMPACTS
In Queensland, Australia, tree cover of just 25–30% has reduced the amount of pasture by 50% (Carter, 1994). Dense thickets also make it difficult to herd livestock, and animals have reduced access to water. In Indonesia, A. nilotica in Baluran National Park has reduced the amount of grazing available for herbivores, threatening the continued existence of the endangered banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton; Bovidae). Infestations also contribute to increase soil erosion. Because the tree fixes nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Austroeupatorium inulifoliumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 466
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: austroeupatorium
Indonesia: kirinyuh, babanjaran
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen spreading, scrambling shrub [1–2.8 (–5) m tall]; stems covered with dense short hairs.
Leaves: Dark green above, pale green and covered with short fine hairs below; spear-shaped (7–18 cm long and 2.5–8 cm wide), leaves held opposite each other on stem on wedge-shaped leaf stalks (0.5–3 cm long).
Flowers: White in terminal, cylindrical heads (5–6 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), 8–15 flowers in each head, fragrant.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity) brown, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides, angular (1.5 mm long), with a whitish ring of hairs (pappus) (4 mm long) on the top of the fruit.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, perennial crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, grasslands, savannah, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and invades areas planted with perennial crops reducing yields and increasing management costs. In the Philippines, it forms dense thickets in rubber, tea and rosella plantations, upland rice plantations and in clearings of secondary forests (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998). In Sri Lanka, A. inulifolium has spread into the Knuckles Conservation Area, and has invaded many ecosystems such as grasslands, plantations and roadsides. It is unpalatable to livestock and reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Senna occidentalishot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 461
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Caesalpiniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ant bush, arsenic bush, coffee senna, sicklepod, stinkweed.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or lives for more than one year but less that two, erect herb or shrub (0.5–2.5 m tall); stems reddish-purple, smooth, hairless or sparsely hairy, four-angled or grooved when young becoming greenish-brown and rounded.
Leaves: Green, once-divided (15–20 cm long), with 3–5 pairs of oppositely held egg-shaped or oval leaflets (3–10 cm long and 2–3 cm wide) with broad and rounded bases, tapering towards the end with pointed tips; conspicuous gland at the base of each leaf stalk; alternately held on stems on reddish stalks (3–5 cm long).
Flowers: Bright yellow (20–30 mm across) in small clusters of 2–6 flowers in forks of uppermost leaves.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flattened, slightly curled (75–130 mm long and 8–10 mm wide), held upright.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Coffee substitute, medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, managed pastures, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands can displace native plant species, and reduce livestock carrying capacities in managed and natural pastures. Being allelopathic, it inhibits the germination and growth of other plants. Studies have shown that it has a negative impact on maize (Arora, 2013) and cotton yields (Higgins et al., 1986), and is an alternative host for crop diseases (Suteri et al., 1979). The seeds of S. occidentalis are highly toxic, containing compounds that damage the liver, the vascular system and the heart and lungs of domestic livestock, often leading to death in cattle (Barros et al., 1999), horses (Riet-Correa et al., 1998), goats (Suliman et al., 1982; Suliman and Shommein, 1986), pigs (Martins et al., 1986), poultry (Haraguchi et al., 1998), and rabbits (O’Hara and Pierce, 1974). Consumption of the seeds in western Uttar Pradesh, in India, resulted in the deaths of nine children within five days (Vashishtha et al., 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Mimosa pudicahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 458
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: common sensitive plant, shame plant, sleeping grass, touchme-not
Cambodia: preah klab sampeahs, preah khlab, sampeahs
Indonesia: putri malu, sikejut
Lao PDR: nya nyoub
Myanmar: tee-kayone
Philippines: babain, bain-bain, hibi-hibi, torog-torog
Thailand: yaa pan yot
Viet Nam: cây xau ho, co trinh nu
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen prickly herbaceous plant or small shrub, creeping or sprawling [15–50 (–100) cm high]; stems reddish-brown to purplish, round, sparse prickles (2–2.5 mm long).
Leaves: Yellowish-green, sparsely hairy, twice-divided, 1–2 pairs of leaflet branchlets (2.5–8 cm long) each bearing 10–25 pairs of elongated leaflets with almost parallel sides (6–15 mm long and 1–3 mm wide), margins entire, borne on stalks (1.5–6 cm long), leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Lilac or pink in fluffy round heads or clusters (9–15 mm across) held on bristly stalks (1–4 cm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, elongated with almost parallel sides, flattened (1–2.5 cm long and 3–6 mm wide), held in clusters covered in bristles, prickles along their margins, break transversely into segments; seeds are light brown, flattened (2.5–3 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, tannins, forage for bees, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, gardens, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, wetlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Is a fire hazard and poses a significant threat to native flora. It is a serious pest of crops and pastures throughout the tropics (Holm et al., 1979). Infestations of M. pudica can lead to a 10–70% reduction in upland rice yields in Kerala, India (Joseph and Bridgit, 1993). It is also considered a serious weed of sugarcane, sorghum, maize, soybean (Holm et al., 1977), tomatoes, pineapples, cotton (Lee Soo Ann, 1976; Waterhouse and Norris, 1987), rubber, tea, coffee, coconut, oil palm, banana, mango, papaya, citrus and even Acacia mangium plantations in Indonesia (Nazif, 1993). Mimosa also invades pasture and can be toxic to livestock. It is suspected of poisoning cattle in Papua New Guinea (Henty and Pritchard, 1975) and has caused stunted growth in chickens in Indonesia (Kostermans et al., 1987).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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