Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Thunbergia grandiflorahot!Tooltip 10/04/2018 Hits: 652
ACANTHUS FAMILY
Acanthaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Bengal trumpet vine, blue thunbergia, blue trumpet vine, Indian sky flower
Cambodia: voer thnort
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Philippines: ag-agob, hagonoy, suga-suga, padawel, saromayag, kama-elaw
Viet Nam: dây bông xanh, bông báo
 
DESCRIPTION
A vigorous evergreen climber with rope-like stems (up to 15 m in height) with tuberous roots; young stems are green, hairy, square in cross-section, becoming brown and more rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green, somewhat hairy, simple, variable in shape from triangular with broad heart-shaped bases to egg-shaped with broad end at base (8–22 cm long and 3–15 cm wide), margins entire to irregularly toothed or with irregular pointed lobes, held opposite each other on stems.
Flowers: Pale-blue, violet or mauve with pale yellow or whitish throat, trumpet-shaped (3–8 cm long and 6–8 cm across), on elongated clusters; each flower on a stalk (4.5 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) with a rounded base (18 mm long and 13 mm wide) and a long tapered beak (2–5 cm long and about 7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Plantations, forest, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/ gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
This climber completely smothers other established plant species and prevents the regeneration of native species in invaded areas (Starr et al., 2003b). T. grandiflora has a heavy and extensive tuberous root system which can lead to riverbank destabilization and damage fences and building foundations (Motooka et al., 2003). In Queensland, Australia, it is having a negative impact on threatened lowland tropical rainforest that have been fragmented by agricultural and urban development (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007). It also climbs on to power lines causing power outages.
 

Source:

Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018

file icon Mimosa pudicahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 650
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: common sensitive plant, shame plant, sleeping grass, touchme-not
Cambodia: preah klab sampeahs, preah khlab, sampeahs
Indonesia: putri malu, sikejut
Lao PDR: nya nyoub
Myanmar: tee-kayone
Philippines: babain, bain-bain, hibi-hibi, torog-torog
Thailand: yaa pan yot
Viet Nam: cây xau ho, co trinh nu
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen prickly herbaceous plant or small shrub, creeping or sprawling [15–50 (–100) cm high]; stems reddish-brown to purplish, round, sparse prickles (2–2.5 mm long).
Leaves: Yellowish-green, sparsely hairy, twice-divided, 1–2 pairs of leaflet branchlets (2.5–8 cm long) each bearing 10–25 pairs of elongated leaflets with almost parallel sides (6–15 mm long and 1–3 mm wide), margins entire, borne on stalks (1.5–6 cm long), leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Lilac or pink in fluffy round heads or clusters (9–15 mm across) held on bristly stalks (1–4 cm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, elongated with almost parallel sides, flattened (1–2.5 cm long and 3–6 mm wide), held in clusters covered in bristles, prickles along their margins, break transversely into segments; seeds are light brown, flattened (2.5–3 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, tannins, forage for bees, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, gardens, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, savannah, lowlands, wetlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Is a fire hazard and poses a significant threat to native flora. It is a serious pest of crops and pastures throughout the tropics (Holm et al., 1979). Infestations of M. pudica can lead to a 10–70% reduction in upland rice yields in Kerala, India (Joseph and Bridgit, 1993). It is also considered a serious weed of sugarcane, sorghum, maize, soybean (Holm et al., 1977), tomatoes, pineapples, cotton (Lee Soo Ann, 1976; Waterhouse and Norris, 1987), rubber, tea, coffee, coconut, oil palm, banana, mango, papaya, citrus and even Acacia mangium plantations in Indonesia (Nazif, 1993). Mimosa also invades pasture and can be toxic to livestock. It is suspected of poisoning cattle in Papua New Guinea (Henty and Pritchard, 1975) and has caused stunted growth in chickens in Indonesia (Kostermans et al., 1987).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Austroeupatorium inulifoliumhot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 645
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: austroeupatorium
Indonesia: kirinyuh, babanjaran
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen spreading, scrambling shrub [1–2.8 (–5) m tall]; stems covered with dense short hairs.
Leaves: Dark green above, pale green and covered with short fine hairs below; spear-shaped (7–18 cm long and 2.5–8 cm wide), leaves held opposite each other on stem on wedge-shaped leaf stalks (0.5–3 cm long).
Flowers: White in terminal, cylindrical heads (5–6 mm long and 2–3 mm wide), 8–15 flowers in each head, fragrant.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity) brown, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides, angular (1.5 mm long), with a whitish ring of hairs (pappus) (4 mm long) on the top of the fruit.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, perennial crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, grasslands, savannah, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and invades areas planted with perennial crops reducing yields and increasing management costs. In the Philippines, it forms dense thickets in rubber, tea and rosella plantations, upland rice plantations and in clearings of secondary forests (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998). In Sri Lanka, A. inulifolium has spread into the Knuckles Conservation Area, and has invaded many ecosystems such as grasslands, plantations and roadsides. It is unpalatable to livestock and reduces livestock-carrying capacities.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Senna occidentalishot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 642
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Caesalpiniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ant bush, arsenic bush, coffee senna, sicklepod, stinkweed.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or lives for more than one year but less that two, erect herb or shrub (0.5–2.5 m tall); stems reddish-purple, smooth, hairless or sparsely hairy, four-angled or grooved when young becoming greenish-brown and rounded.
Leaves: Green, once-divided (15–20 cm long), with 3–5 pairs of oppositely held egg-shaped or oval leaflets (3–10 cm long and 2–3 cm wide) with broad and rounded bases, tapering towards the end with pointed tips; conspicuous gland at the base of each leaf stalk; alternately held on stems on reddish stalks (3–5 cm long).
Flowers: Bright yellow (20–30 mm across) in small clusters of 2–6 flowers in forks of uppermost leaves.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flattened, slightly curled (75–130 mm long and 8–10 mm wide), held upright.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Coffee substitute, medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, managed pastures, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands can displace native plant species, and reduce livestock carrying capacities in managed and natural pastures. Being allelopathic, it inhibits the germination and growth of other plants. Studies have shown that it has a negative impact on maize (Arora, 2013) and cotton yields (Higgins et al., 1986), and is an alternative host for crop diseases (Suteri et al., 1979). The seeds of S. occidentalis are highly toxic, containing compounds that damage the liver, the vascular system and the heart and lungs of domestic livestock, often leading to death in cattle (Barros et al., 1999), horses (Riet-Correa et al., 1998), goats (Suliman et al., 1982; Suliman and Shommein, 1986), pigs (Martins et al., 1986), poultry (Haraguchi et al., 1998), and rabbits (O’Hara and Pierce, 1974). Consumption of the seeds in western Uttar Pradesh, in India, resulted in the deaths of nine children within five days (Vashishtha et al., 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Mimosa diplotrichahot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 636
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: creeping sensitive plant, nila grass, tropical blackberry
Cambodia: preah khlab damrei
Indonesia: jukut boring, putri malu, simeduri-dura
Lao PDR: nya nahm
Myanmar: tee-ka-yone-gyi
Philippines: aroma, hibi-hibi, kamit-kabag, makahiyang lalake
Thailand: maiyaraap luei
Viet Nam: trinh nu móc
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, biennial (living for longer than one year but less than two) or evergreen, scrambling, climbing, strongly branched shrub, forming dense thickets [2–3 (–6) m tall], woody at the base with age; stems green or purplish tinged, 4–5-angled in cross-section, covered with sharp, recurved, yellowish spines (3–6 mm long).
Leaves: Bright-green, twice-divided (10–20 cm long), 4–9 pairs of leaflet branchlets each with 12–30 pairs of small elongated leaflets (6–12 mm long and 1.5 mm wide) with pointed tips, leaves fold together at night or when touched.
Flowers: Pinkish-violet or purplish, round heads (12 mm across), borne singly or in small groups on hairy stalks (3.5–16 mm long).
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flat, softly spiny on edges, elongated (8–35 mm long and 3–10 mm wide); occur in clusters which break into oneseeded joints; seeds are light brown (1.9 mm long and 2.7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Erosion control, nitrogen fixation, forage for bees, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, crops, plantations, managed pasture, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, lowlands, wetlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers other plants and prevents their natural regeneration. Dense stands also prevent or inhibit the movement of livestock and wildlife. In Nigeria, when M. diplotricha density reached 630,000 plants per hectare, cassava root yield, 12 months after planting, was reduced by 80% (Alabi et al., 2001). It readily invades orchards and rice paddies reducing yields and increasing management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). On cattle ranches in Papua New Guinea, up to US$ 130,000 is spent annually on chemical control (Kuniata, 1994). In Thailand, 22 swamp buffaloes died 18–36 hours after eating M. diplotricha (Tungtrakanpoung and Rhienpanish, 1992). Trials in Queensland, Australia, indicated toxicity to sheep, and a report from Flores, Indonesia, suggests that it is toxic to pigs (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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