Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Miconia calvescenshot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 343
TIBOUCHINA FAMILY
Melastomataceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bush currant, miconia, purple plague, velvet tree
Viet Nam: cây micona
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree [4–8 (–16) m tall]; young stems are green, four-angled and covered in tiny star-shaped hairs; stems become brown and rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green above and bright purple below, hairless, simple, oval with pointed tips [17–40 (–100) cm long and 7–25 cm wide], margins entire or finely toothed, three-veined from base to tip of leaf; leaf stalks are 2–6 cm long.
Flowers: White or pinkish, small, held in large clusters (20–50 cm long) at end of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning bluish black or dark purple as they mature (about 6 mm across), containing 140–230 seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay and Peru.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament and in contaminated soil.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, plantations, riverbanks and coastal areas.
 
IMPACTS
Areas invaded become totally transformed due to the creation of deep shade which few native species can tolerate (Meyer, 1994). This weed now covers over two-thirds of the island of Tahiti, forming dense monotypic stands, that have overwhelmed the native forests, where between 40 and 50 of the 107 species endemic to Tahiti are thought to be on the verge of extinction (Meyer and Florence, 1996). Between 70 and 100 native plant species, including 40–50 species endemic to French Polynesia, are estimated to be directly threatened by M. calvescens with significant knock-on impacts on endemic birds and other organisms (Meyer and Florence, 1996). The lack of ground cover under infestations also contributes to higher rates of soil erosion. Impacts have let to infestations being termed the ‘green cancer’ of Tahiti and the ‘purple plague’ of Hawaii.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Hedychium coronariumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 346
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: butterfly ginger, garland flower, garland lily, ginger lily, white butterfly ginger lily, white ginger, white ginger-lily, wild ginger
Indonesia: gondasuli, gandasoli, mandasuli
Malaysia: gandasuli, suli
Philippines: kamia, jing hua
Thailand: hanghong, hun kaeo, mahaahong, tha haan
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen herbaceous plant [1–2.5 (–2.5) m tall] which produces a thick mat of creeping underground stems (2.5–5 cm across) close to the soil surface, stems are reddish at base and covered by leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasp stem).
Leaves: Green, glossy, smooth, hairless, simple, sword-shaped or somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides narrowed to a slender point (50–60 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire with
prominent midvein; leaves held alternately on stem.
Flowers: White, at the tip of each unbranched stem, showy, fragrant.
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), orange-yellow, dry, smooth, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2.5–3.5 cm long) containing many seeds (6 mm long and 4 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Taiwan.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dam edges, ponds, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Forms extensive thickets which disrupt water flow in channels and displace and suppress the regeneration of native wetland plants. In Brazil, dense infestations have caused the localized extinction of Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora), a rare invertebrate, in a nature reserve established to protect it (Soares and Barreto, 2008). White ginger is a threat to Clermontia samuelii Forbes (Campanulaceae) and Labordia tinifolia A. Gray var. lanaiensis Sherff. (Loganiaceae), two endemic plant species on the Maui Nui group of islands in the Hawaiian Islands (USFWS, 1999). In St Lucia it may be replacing the rare indigenous orchid Habenaria monorrhiza [Sw] Rchb.f (Orchidaceae) (Krauss, 2012). The plant is also toxic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Ageratina adenophorahot!Tooltip 10/09/2018 Hits: 348
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cat weed, crofton weed, hemp agrimony, Mexican devil.
 
DESCRIPTION
A multi-stemmed evergreen herb or soft shrub [1–2 (–3) m high], young stems green, reddish or purplish covered in sticky hairs becoming woody and brownish-green or brown when mature.
Leaves: Dark green, simple, diamond-shaped or almost triangular (4–15 cm long and 3–9 cm wide) with toothed margins, three-veined from the base, held opposite each other on the stem on long stalks (about 1–6 cm long), non-aromatic.
Flowers: White flowerheads (5–8 mm across) in terminal clusters at the tips of branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), bristly (about 2 mm long and 0.3–0.5 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and lowlands.
 
IMPACTS
Trailing branches easily root at the nodes on contact with the soil, forming dense impenetrable stands resulting in the loss of biodiversity. In Australia, infestations pose a threat to rare and endangered species. It also reduces crop yields, reduces livestockcarrying capacities and restricts movement of livestock and machinery. In Australia, it spreads so fast that dairy farmers and banana growers abandoned their land (Auld, 1969, 1970; Holm et al.,1991; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It is unpalatable to cattle and toxic to horses, who readily consume it if present.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 10 October 2018
file icon Parthenium hysterophorushot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 348
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: carrot weed, carrot grass, congress weed, famine weed, ragweed, white top.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual erect herb, much branched [0.5–1.5 (–2) m high], forms a basal rosette of leaves when young, green stems are longitudinally grooved or ribbed and covered in short hairs.
Leaves: Pale green, covered with short stiff hairs; rosette and lower stem leaves are deeply divided and large (3–30cm long and 2–12 cm wide); upper stem leaves are shorter and less divided
Flowers: White, in small compact heads (5 mm across), clustered at the tips of branches, each flowerhead has five distinctive petals.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), (1.5–2.5 mm long), five in each flowerhead.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Grenadines, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, ornament and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, riversides, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Parthenium disrupts grasslands, invades woodlands and generally disturbs native vegetation through aggressive competition (Evans, 1997). Parthenium is allelopathic, reducing crop yields, and displacing palatable species in natural and improved pasture. In India, parthenium infestations have resulted in yield losses of up to 40% in several crops (Khosla and Sobti, 1979). Parthenium is also a secondary host for a range of crop pests. In terms of pasture production, this noxious weed has been found to reduce livestock carrying capacities by as much as 90% (Jayachandra, 1971). It also poses serious health hazards to livestock, and can cause severe allergenic reactions in people who regularly come into contact with the weed.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Senna occidentalishot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 348
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Caesalpiniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ant bush, arsenic bush, coffee senna, sicklepod, stinkweed.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or lives for more than one year but less that two, erect herb or shrub (0.5–2.5 m tall); stems reddish-purple, smooth, hairless or sparsely hairy, four-angled or grooved when young becoming greenish-brown and rounded.
Leaves: Green, once-divided (15–20 cm long), with 3–5 pairs of oppositely held egg-shaped or oval leaflets (3–10 cm long and 2–3 cm wide) with broad and rounded bases, tapering towards the end with pointed tips; conspicuous gland at the base of each leaf stalk; alternately held on stems on reddish stalks (3–5 cm long).
Flowers: Bright yellow (20–30 mm across) in small clusters of 2–6 flowers in forks of uppermost leaves.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, flattened, slightly curled (75–130 mm long and 8–10 mm wide), held upright.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Coffee substitute, medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, managed pastures, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Dense stands can displace native plant species, and reduce livestock carrying capacities in managed and natural pastures. Being allelopathic, it inhibits the germination and growth of other plants. Studies have shown that it has a negative impact on maize (Arora, 2013) and cotton yields (Higgins et al., 1986), and is an alternative host for crop diseases (Suteri et al., 1979). The seeds of S. occidentalis are highly toxic, containing compounds that damage the liver, the vascular system and the heart and lungs of domestic livestock, often leading to death in cattle (Barros et al., 1999), horses (Riet-Correa et al., 1998), goats (Suliman et al., 1982; Suliman and Shommein, 1986), pigs (Martins et al., 1986), poultry (Haraguchi et al., 1998), and rabbits (O’Hara and Pierce, 1974). Consumption of the seeds in western Uttar Pradesh, in India, resulted in the deaths of nine children within five days (Vashishtha et al., 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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