Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

DocumentsDate added

Order by : Name | Date | Hits [ Descendent ]
file icon Clidemia hirtahot!Tooltip 10/10/2018 Hits: 343
TIBOUCHINA FAMILY
Melastomataceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Koster’s curse, soap bush
Indonesia: harendong bulu
Viet Nam: co saphony
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub [0.5–3 (–5) m tall], branchlets rounded, covered with large reddish-brown hairs/bristles.
Leaves: Light green, upper surfaces with a few hairs, lower surfaces more densely hairy, simple, oval or egg-shaped (5–18 cm long and 3–8 cm wide) with pointed tips, 5–7 prominent veins from the base running almost parallel; margins finely toothed, leaves appear wrinkled or pleated, leaves held opposite each other on stem.
Flowers: White or sometimes pale pink, in clusters in the leaf forks or tips of branches, on a short flower stalk (0.5–1 mm long); base of flower is swollen into a cup-shaped structure.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), dark blue, purplish or blackish, globular (4–9 mm across), covered in hairs/bristles; seeds are light brown (0.5–0.75 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, plantations, pasture, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps and riversides.
 
IMPACTS
This invasive plant has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plant species. Smith (1985) characterized the impacts of C.hirta as ‘devastating’ in Hawaii, where it threatens the extinction of endemic species. In Tanzania, it suppresses native herbs (Pocs, 1989), while in Fiji, it renders grazing land useless and retards the development of rubber and cocoa plantations. In Southeast Asia, it invades orchards and rubber and oil palm plantations where it reduces yields and increases management costs (Waterhouse, 1993). It came to be known as ‘Koster’s curse’ after being accidentally introduced to Fiji by Koster and its subsequent impacts
(curse) on plantation crops. It is also toxic to livestock (Francis, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Coccinea grandishot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 850
GOURD FAMILY
Cucurbitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ivy gourd, kovai fruit, little gourd, scarlet gourd, tindora
Cambodia: slok bahs, voer bahs
Indonesia: timun kecil, timun jepang
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, herbaceous vine (9–28 m long) with hairless stems, extensive tuberous root system and axillary tendrils.
Leaves: Green, hairless above and hairy below, simple, eggshaped with broad and rounded base tapering towards the end or heart-shaped (5–9 cm long and 4–9 cm wide), sometimes with 3–7 shallow to deep lobes, margins finely to minutely toothed, held alternately on stem, leaf stalks 1–3 cm long.
Flowers: White, large, star-shaped with five petals.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green
turning bright red as they mature, smooth, egg-or oval-shaped (25–60 mm long and 14–35 mm wide); stalks are 10–40 mm long.
 
ORIGIN
Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal,Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Food and ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, gardens, cropland, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Very aggressive and can smother and kill other vegetation, including large trees. In Hawaii, it smothers trees and understorey vegetation (Muniappan et al., 2009). It has the potential to invade dry forest areas on Maui and out-compete rare native plants (Starr et al., 2003a). According to Medeiros et al. (1993) C. grandis ‘would not only trigger the decline of much of the remaining biota but also transform the visual landscape to even the most casual of observers’. C. grandis is ‘an aggressive alien vine that tends to out-compete all other plants’ (Starr and Martz, 2000). It can also cover fences, power lines and other infrastructure causing economic damage. In the last two decades, C. grandis has emerged as an invasive weed in the islands of Guam and Saipan, where it is a problem plant both in managed gardens and natural areas (PIER, 2005). It is also a host for a number of crop pests in the family Cucurbitaceae including Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Aulacophora spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bemisia spp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Duranta erectahot!Tooltip 10/11/2018 Hits: 337
VERBENA FAMILY
Verbenaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Brazilian skyflower, forget-me-not tree, golden dew drop, golden tears
Indonesia: sinyo nakal
Viet Nam: thanh quan
 
DESCRIPTION
Usually evergreen, multi-stemmed, shrub or small tree [2–4 (–7) m high]; sometimes scrambling, branches with a drooping habit; sometimes with spines in the leaf stalks; branches four-angled.
Leaves: Dark to light green, sparsely hairy to hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped (15–90 mm long and 12–60 mm wide), margins usually entire but sometimes toothed towards the leaf tips, held opposite each other on stem or occasionally in whorls of three.
Flowers: Lilac, light blue, pale purple or white, tubular-shaped (9–18 mm long), in elongated clusters or sprays up to 30 cm long at the ends of branches.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), initially green turning orange-yellow as they mature, round or almost round (5–14 mm wide), shiny, with a curved beak at one end, borne in large clusters.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Southern USA, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
D. erecta has the ability to form dense stands displacing native plants, and the organisms associated with them. It is allelopathic and also has the ability to climb into woodland or forest canopies. Its toxicity has been known for over 100 years when the ingestion of fruit was inferred to have killed a two-year-old boy in Queensland, Australia, in the late 19th century (Wheeler, 1895). It has also caused the death of numerous pets (Scanlan et al., 2006) and poisoned cattle (Sutherland, 1953).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 12 October 2018
file icon Eichhornia crassipeshot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 826
PICKEREL WEED FAMILY
Pontederiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: lilac devil, Nile lily, pickerelweed, water hyacinth, water orchid
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, free-floating, aquatic plant that may become anchored in shallow water; [10–20 (–100) cm high]; roots are long and feathery; runners (10 cm long) are produced across the water surface and give rise to new plants.
Leaves: Dark green, shiny, hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped to almost rounded (2–25 cm long and 2–15 cm wide) with swollen bladder-like stems (30 cm long).
Flowers: Pale violet or blue (4–6 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide), upper petal of each flower has a prominent yellow-centred patch; flowers in clusters of 8–10.
Fruits: Capsules (a dry fruit that opens at maturity) (10–15 mm long), containing very fine seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
This aquatic weed has the ability to form thick mats which hamper water transport; inhibit or even prevent fishing-related activities; block waterways and canals; hamper hydroelectricity generation; and provide breeding sites for vectors of human and animal diseases, increasing the incidence of malaria, encephalitis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, river blindness and possibly cholera (Burton, 1960; Spira et al., 1981; Gopal, 1987; Viswam et al., 1989). The thick mats reduce light penetration into the water, causing declines in the concentrations of phytoplankton that support the zooplankton–fish food chain. Extensive mats of water hyacinth increase water loss through evapotranspiration, and impact rice production (Waterhouse, 1993). In southern Benin, an infestation of water hyacinth reduced the annual income of 200,000 people by about US $84 million (de Groote et al., 2003). Lost revenues for men were mostly fishing-related, while women experienced lost revenues in trade, primarily of food crops and fish.
 
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018.

 

file icon Gracilaria salicorniahot!Tooltip 09/12/2019 Hits: 116
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: red alga
Philippines: canot-canot; caocaoayan
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria salicornia varies in colour from a bright yellow at the tips to orange, green or brown at the base. The thallus is cylindrical (0.5cm in diameter) and dichotomously branched with constrictions at the base of each dichotomy. In Hawai’i it generally grows in three-dimensional mats that are tightly adherent to hard substrata and can be up to 25-40cm in thickness; in calm environments it may grow in an upright and more openly branching form (Smith Pers. Comm. 2003).
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
World: Australia, Fiji, India, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, United States, Yemen, China, Guam, Japan, Kuwait, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Reunion, South Africa, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water; Ship/boat hull fouling
Intentional release
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Gracilaria salicornia was introduced intentionally to two reefs on O'ahu, Hawai'i, in the 1970s for experimental aquaculture for the agar industry (Smith et al. 2004).A likely vector of transport of invasive marine algae is through ship fouling and/or ballast water. In Hawaii many alien algae were first collected in or around harbors and gradually dispersed to neighbouring areas (Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
IMPACTS
In tropical regions, blooms of indigenous algae (such as Gracilaria salicornia) have often been tied to reductions in grazing intensity and increases in anthropogenically derived nutrient levels (Miller et al. 1999, McClanahan et al. 2001, McCook et al. 2001, Smith et al. 2001, Stimson et al. 2001, Thacker et al. 2001, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002). G. salicornia is likely to damage native coral environments by over-growing native benthic organisms such as algae and marine invertebrates. Because of its large morphological stature and the dense mats it forms (5 to 10cm thick), G. salicornia can have large effects on benthic ecology by monopolising stratum (Smith et al. 2004). In many cases, red alga becomes ecologically dominant and grows over coral reefs. For example, in areas of Hawaii such as Waikiki G. salicornia has become the single-most dominant benthic species in an area that before invasion was home to over 60 species of macroalgae (Doty 1969, in Smith et al. 2004. The long-term consequences of phase shifts from coral to algal dominance may include the loss of biodiversity, a decrease in the intrinsic value of the reef, changes in the community structure (eg: a reduction in the numbers of reef fish dependent upon corals for habitat and shelter), and erosion of the reef (Hughes 1994, in Smith Hunter and Smith 2002).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria salicornia. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1026 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>
Page 5 of 13