Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Argemone mexicanahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 277
POPPY FAMILY
Papaveraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mexican poppy, Mexican thistle, prickly poppy
Indonesia: druju, celangkringan
Malaysia: chelang keriugan, pokok popi
Myanmar: kye-ja
Philippines: kachumba, kasubang-aso, diluariu
Thailand: fin naam
Viet Nam: cà dai hoa vàng, gai cua, mùi cua
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, very spiny herb (up to 0.9 m high); stems exude a yellow sap when cut.
Leaves: Grey or bluish-green, with prominent white veins and yellowmidvein (5–22 cm long and 3–7 cm wide), deep lobed with sharp spines; leaves of A. ochroleuca Sweet. are a darker shade of green.
Flowers: Bright yellow (2.5–5 cm across) as opposed to pale yellow or creamy white in A. ochroleuca.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), spiny, green turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (2.5–4 cm long), splitting into 3–6 lobes releasing small black seeds (1.5 mm across).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida (USA), Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, fallow land, crops, managed pasture, riparian areas, gullies and dry river courses.
 
IMPACTS
Reduces plant diversity and has an inhibitory effect on the germination and seedling growth of vegetables (Hazarika and Sannigrahi, 2001). Weed residues may also affect the growth and development of bambara
groundnut and sorghum (Karikari et al., 2000). Ingestion of seeds by poultry can result in death, and grazing animals can be poisoned if the seeds are consumed in hay or chaff. Harvesting of crops in the presence
of this weed can also result in injuries. Edible vegetable oil, either accidentally contaminated with A. mexicana, or intentionally adulterated by unscrupulous traders, has resulted in epidemic dropsy in India. An
epidemic also occurred in South Africa following the contamination of wheat flour (Sharma et al., 1999). A. mexicana has been identified as an important allergen in India (Singh and Kumar, 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Bidens pilosahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 268
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: black jack, beggar’s tick, broom stick, cobbler’s pegs, Spanish needle
Indonesia: ajeran
Lao PDR: pak kwan cham
Myanmar: moat-so-ma-hlan, ta-se-urt
Philippines: borburtak, enwad, kaperek, nguwad, puriket, pisau-pisau, tubak-tubak
Thailand: puen nok sai
Viet Nam: xuyen chi
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or evergreen erect herb (up to 1 m tall), hairless stems, fourangled, purplish green in colour, simple or branched.
Leaves: Green, compound with 3–5 leaflets each; leaflets variable but usually egg-shaped with a broader and rounded base tapering towards the end to spear-shaped [3–7 (–10) cm long and 1–2 (–5) cm wide], margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth, terminal leaflet always larger than lateral (side) ones.
Flowers: White petals, centre yellow (7–8 mm wide), usually borne singly on stalks (1 cm long).
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, slender (1.5 mm long), ribbed, 2–4 barbed bristles or awns at terminal end.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railway lines, disturbed land, wastelands, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens, drainage ditches, forest edges/ gaps, woodlands, riversides, lowlands, floodplains and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Under favourable conditions a single plant can produce 3,000–6,000 seeds per year, with 3–4 generations annually. This, together with its allelopathic properties, allows it to form dense stands rapidly, displacing
native vegetation. In Southeast Asia, this weed is problematic for those growing cabbage, pineapple, guava and plantation crops (Waterhouse, 1993). Densities of eight blackjack plants per square metre, in soybean
fields in Argentina, reduced yields by 43% (Arce et al., 1995). Dry bean harvests in Uganda and Peru were reduced by 48% and 18–48%, respectively, as a result of the presence of B. pilosa. B. pilosa is also a
host and vector to harmful parasites such as root knot nematodes and tomato spotted wilt virus (Mvere, 2004; DPI, 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Canna indicahot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 296
CANNA FAMILY
Cannaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: African arrowroot, canna lily, edible canna, Indian shot, purple arrowroot
Cambodia: chek tehs
Indonesia: bunga kana, buah tasbeh, ganyong, ubi pikul
Lao PDR: kwàyz ké, kwàyz ph’uttha son
Malaysia: daun tasbeh, ganjong, pisang sebiak, pisang sebiak
Myanmar: adalut, butsarana
Philippines: batag-batag, balunsaying, korintas sa kalasan, kakuwintasan, tikas-tikas
Thailand:, bua lawong, phut, phuttaa-raksaa, phutthason, tharaksa
Viet Nam: chuoi hoa, ngai hoa
 
DESCRIPTION
Robust evergreen herb (1–2 m high) with a thick, branching, underground rhizome; leaves taper into slender petioles that form a sheath (tubular structure that clasps stem) around the main stem.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, elongated or oval (20–60 cm long and 10–30 cm wide), tapering to a point, margins entire, sheath clasping the stem similar to Canna × generalis Bailey, which also has purple-bronze leaves.
Flowers: Red or orange, usually yellow below, narrow (40–50 mm long), borne singly or in pairs at the tips of the flowering stems as opposed to Canna × generalis, which are yellow, red, orange, white or other colours, broad (80–90 mm long).
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, spiny, three-valved containing hard black seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Gardens, plantations, forest edges/gaps, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dam/lake/river edges, ponds, lowlands, floodplains, swamps and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense clumps out-competing native plant species. It also restricts the flow of water contributing to increased sedimentation and flooding. Dense stands can also restrict access to water. It is also an alternative
host of a number of crop pests, including banana bunchy top virus, cucumber mosaic virus and tomato spotted wilt virus, and a range of other pests that cause pathogenic diseases. Chemical extracts have a negative impact on snail species (Tripathi and Singh, 2000).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Hedychium coronariumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 282
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: butterfly ginger, garland flower, garland lily, ginger lily, white butterfly ginger lily, white ginger, white ginger-lily, wild ginger
Indonesia: gondasuli, gandasoli, mandasuli
Malaysia: gandasuli, suli
Philippines: kamia, jing hua
Thailand: hanghong, hun kaeo, mahaahong, tha haan
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen herbaceous plant [1–2.5 (–2.5) m tall] which produces a thick mat of creeping underground stems (2.5–5 cm across) close to the soil surface, stems are reddish at base and covered by leaf sheaths (tubular structure that clasp stem).
Leaves: Green, glossy, smooth, hairless, simple, sword-shaped or somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides narrowed to a slender point (50–60 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire with
prominent midvein; leaves held alternately on stem.
Flowers: White, at the tip of each unbranched stem, showy, fragrant.
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), orange-yellow, dry, smooth, somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2.5–3.5 cm long) containing many seeds (6 mm long and 4 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Taiwan.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dam edges, ponds, forests, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation, lowlands, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lake and river edges.
 
IMPACTS
Forms extensive thickets which disrupt water flow in channels and displace and suppress the regeneration of native wetland plants. In Brazil, dense infestations have caused the localized extinction of Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora), a rare invertebrate, in a nature reserve established to protect it (Soares and Barreto, 2008). White ginger is a threat to Clermontia samuelii Forbes (Campanulaceae) and Labordia tinifolia A. Gray var. lanaiensis Sherff. (Loganiaceae), two endemic plant species on the Maui Nui group of islands in the Hawaiian Islands (USFWS, 1999). In St Lucia it may be replacing the rare indigenous orchid Habenaria monorrhiza [Sw] Rchb.f (Orchidaceae) (Krauss, 2012). The plant is also toxic.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Hedychium gardnerianumhot!Tooltip 10/08/2018 Hits: 259
GINGER FAMILY
Zingiberaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: kahili garland lily, kahili ginger, red ginger lily, wild ginger
Viet Nam: gung dai
 
DESCRIPTION
Robust, evergreen, with creeping underground stems or rhizomes [1–2 (–2.5) m high], branching surface rhizomes that can form dense mats up to 1 m thick.
Leaves: Bright green or greyish-green, glossy, upper surface hairless, lower surface sparsely hairy, narrow, tapering with pointed tips (20–45 cm long and 10–15 cm wide), margins entire; leaves held alternately on stem with a long base that sheaths the stem.
Flowers: Yellow in large clusters (15–45 cm long and 15–20 cm wide) at tips of stems; each flower has a slender red tube.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), thin-walled (about 1.5 cm long) with three compartments.
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, India and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, riverbanks and damp areas.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands out-competing native species for light, space, nutrients and moisture, and its shade tolerance makes it able to thrive in forests. The thick rhizome mats also prevent the establishment of other species. Populations are now found on all islands in Hawaii (Smith, 1985). Its aggressive growth and shade tolerance means that it can form dense thickets in the understorey of open and closed-canopy Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) rainforests as well as in open habitats and forest edges around the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Anderson and Gardner, 1999). It threatens primary forest remnants in La Réunion and continuous expansion of large stands may endanger endemic lichens, vascular plants, molluscs and arthropods in the Azores. Infestations on Sao Miguel Island also threaten the Azores bullfinch. During rains, large infestations growing on steep slopes often become heavy with absorbed water and slip down slopes, contributing to erosion and gully formation.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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