Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Pistia stratioteshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 737
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Nile cabbage, tropical duckweed, water cabbage, water lettuce
Cambodia: chark Thom
Indonesia: apon-apon, apu-apu, kiapu
Malaysia: kiambang
Thailand: chok, jawg
Viet Nam: bèo cái
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, usually free-floating aquatic plant; consists of a rosette of leaves (30 cm across) with a tuft of long, feathery roots (up to 80 cm long); plants develop runners (up to 60 cm long); resemble floating lettuces.
Leaves: Pale yellow-green or greyish-green, spongy, narrow at the base and rounded at the tips (2.5–15 cm long and 2–8 cm wide), margins with a series of curved projections, leaves ribbed with 6–15 longitudinal veins radiating from the base; soft white velvety hairs are found on the top and bottom of the leaf which repel water.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, pale green or white, arising from leaf forks.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), small, green, eggshaped or oval, (5–10 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Water lettuce infestations contribute to increased rates of siltation, slowing of water flow rates, degradation of fish nesting sites, increased nutrient loading, thermal stratification, increased alkalinity, and fish and macro-invertebrate mortality (Dray and Center, 2002). Mats of water lettuce block waterways, making navigation difficult. Mats of the weed also hamper fishing activities, interfere with hydroelectricity generation and hinder flood control efforts. They provide habitats for vectors of disease, and can interfere with rice production (Holm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Piper aduncumhot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 287
PEPPER FAMILY
Piperaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bamboo piper, false matico, jointwood, piper
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or small tree (6–8 m tall), with short stilt roots, often in thickets, branches are erect, but with drooping twigs and swollen, purplish nodes, foliage and twigs aromatic. Bark: Yellow-green, finely hairy stems and enlarged, ringed nodes.
Leaves: Green, softly hairy beneath, broadly sword- to oval-shaped (13–25 cm long and 3.5–8 cm wide), tapering into long tips with the base asymmetric, short leaf stalks.
Flowers: Yellowish, tiny, in long curving spikes opposite the leaves.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green, small, egg-shaped, compressed into greyish, worm-like spikes.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, spice and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, fallow land, plantations, forest edges/gaps, lowlands and riparian zones.
 
IMPACTS
P. aduncum establishes dense stands which shade out native species and prevent forest regeneration. In field surveys in Papua New Guinea, it was found to be present in all garden plots, 92% of riverine plots, 80% of young secondary and 65% of old secondary forest plots, and 75% of the gaps (Leps et al., 2002). In regenerating areas, P. aduncum sometimes attained a canopy cover of 75% and suppressed the native species which local communities utilized extensively in the past (Leps et al., 2002). In the Pacific, it is accidentally harvested with kava (Piper methysticum G. Forst), an important crop, lowering its quality. It also competes with kava and other crops and may act as a host for kava pests and pathogensm (Plant Protection Service, 2001). It consumes large quantities of water, drying out the soil, and absorbs significant amounts of nutrients to the detriment of crops.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Passiflora suberosahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 751
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cork passion flower, small passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Viet Nam: lac tiên ban
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, slender vine/climber or creeper, stems (up to 6 m in length) producing tendrils in the leaf forks, young stems are round or sometimes angular, becoming corky at the base with age.
Leaves: Dark green, simple (3–11 cm long and 4–12 cm wide), with three-pointed lobes, margins occasionally entire, leaves held alternately on the stems and borne on stalks (0.5–4 cm long).
Flowers: White to pale green, small (15–25 mm wide), on stalks (1.5–2.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning bluish-black or purplish-black as it matures, rounded (1–1.5 cm wide), contain numerous wrinkled seeds (3–4 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation reducing biodiversity. This climber, together with other invasive plant species, threatens Platydesma cornuta Hillebr. var. decurrens B.C. Stone (Rutaceae), a rare shrub endemic on Oahu of which only about 200 individual plants remain (Richardson, 2007). It also invades sugarcane fields and Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Mauritius (Seeruttun et al., 2005). Areas covered with dead and dying native plants become a fire hazard or increase the potential for erosion (Garrison et al., 2002). It is apparently toxic to cattle and ducks (Everist, 1974).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Passiflora foetidahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1156
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: foetid passion flower, passion flower, stinking passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Cambodia: voer saw maw
Indonesia: buah tikus, ceplukan blunsun, katceprek, katjeprek, lemanas, permot, permot rajutan, rambaton blunsun
Lao PDR: nya ham ho
Malaysia: pokok lang bulu, timun dendang
Myanmar: chin-gya-thee-pin, su-ka
Philippines: belon-belon, kurunggut, lupok-lupok, masaflora, melon meleonan, taungan, pasionariang-mabaho, prutas taungan
Thailand: ka thok rok
Viet Nam: chùm bao, nhãn long
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, tendril climber; stems sometimes angular (up to 15 m high); tendril at the base of each leaf stalk together with a stipule (threadlike appendage) covered in sticky glands; stems have an unpleasant odour.
Leaves: Glossy dark-green above, simple, deeply three-lobed, but sometimes entire or five-lobed (3–10.5 cm long and 3–10 cm wide), margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth; leaves held alternately on stems and borne on stalks (1–6 cm long).
Flowers: White or purplish (3–5 cm across), borne singly on stalks (2–4.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), greenishyellow turning yellow/orange as it matures, round, dry, large (1.5–4 cm long), hairless, partially enclosed by the sticky bracts.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, edible fruit, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, savannah and riparian zones.
 
IMPACTS
In parts of Malaysia it is a serious weed of maize and rubber. It also impacts negatively on coconut production in the Pacific, on maize, sugarcane and cotton in Thailand, on oil palm in Indonesia, on taro in Samoa, and on various other crops in Sarawak (Holm et al., 1997). It is an alternative host for a number of diseases which affect cultivated passion fruit.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Parthenium hysterophorushot!Tooltip 10/22/2018 Hits: 257
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: carrot weed, carrot grass, congress weed, famine weed, ragweed, white top.
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual erect herb, much branched [0.5–1.5 (–2) m high], forms a basal rosette of leaves when young, green stems are longitudinally grooved or ribbed and covered in short hairs.
Leaves: Pale green, covered with short stiff hairs; rosette and lower stem leaves are deeply divided and large (3–30cm long and 2–12 cm wide); upper stem leaves are shorter and less divided
Flowers: White, in small compact heads (5 mm across), clustered at the tips of branches, each flowerhead has five distinctive petals.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), (1.5–2.5 mm long), five in each flowerhead.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Grenadines, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, ornament and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, railways, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, gardens drainage ditches, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, grassland, savannah, riversides, lowlands and gullies.
 
IMPACTS
Parthenium disrupts grasslands, invades woodlands and generally disturbs native vegetation through aggressive competition (Evans, 1997). Parthenium is allelopathic, reducing crop yields, and displacing palatable species in natural and improved pasture. In India, parthenium infestations have resulted in yield losses of up to 40% in several crops (Khosla and Sobti, 1979). Parthenium is also a secondary host for a range of crop pests. In terms of pasture production, this noxious weed has been found to reduce livestock carrying capacities by as much as 90% (Jayachandra, 1971). It also poses serious health hazards to livestock, and can cause severe allergenic reactions in people who regularly come into contact with the weed.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
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