Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Passiflora suberosahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 738
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: cork passion flower, small passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Viet Nam: lac tiên ban
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, slender vine/climber or creeper, stems (up to 6 m in length) producing tendrils in the leaf forks, young stems are round or sometimes angular, becoming corky at the base with age.
Leaves: Dark green, simple (3–11 cm long and 4–12 cm wide), with three-pointed lobes, margins occasionally entire, leaves held alternately on the stems and borne on stalks (0.5–4 cm long).
Flowers: White to pale green, small (15–25 mm wide), on stalks (1.5–2.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green turning bluish-black or purplish-black as it matures, rounded (1–1.5 cm wide), contain numerous wrinkled seeds (3–4 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, plantations, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native vegetation reducing biodiversity. This climber, together with other invasive plant species, threatens Platydesma cornuta Hillebr. var. decurrens B.C. Stone (Rutaceae), a rare shrub endemic on Oahu of which only about 200 individual plants remain (Richardson, 2007). It also invades sugarcane fields and Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Mauritius (Seeruttun et al., 2005). Areas covered with dead and dying native plants become a fire hazard or increase the potential for erosion (Garrison et al., 2002). It is apparently toxic to cattle and ducks (Everist, 1974).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Pistia stratioteshot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 723
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Nile cabbage, tropical duckweed, water cabbage, water lettuce
Cambodia: chark Thom
Indonesia: apon-apon, apu-apu, kiapu
Malaysia: kiambang
Thailand: chok, jawg
Viet Nam: bèo cái
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, usually free-floating aquatic plant; consists of a rosette of leaves (30 cm across) with a tuft of long, feathery roots (up to 80 cm long); plants develop runners (up to 60 cm long); resemble floating lettuces.
Leaves: Pale yellow-green or greyish-green, spongy, narrow at the base and rounded at the tips (2.5–15 cm long and 2–8 cm wide), margins with a series of curved projections, leaves ribbed with 6–15 longitudinal veins radiating from the base; soft white velvety hairs are found on the top and bottom of the leaf which repel water.
Flowers: Inconspicuous, pale green or white, arising from leaf forks.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), small, green, eggshaped or oval, (5–10 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Water lettuce infestations contribute to increased rates of siltation, slowing of water flow rates, degradation of fish nesting sites, increased nutrient loading, thermal stratification, increased alkalinity, and fish and macro-invertebrate mortality (Dray and Center, 2002). Mats of water lettuce block waterways, making navigation difficult. Mats of the weed also hamper fishing activities, interfere with hydroelectricity generation and hinder flood control efforts. They provide habitats for vectors of disease, and can interfere with rice production (Holm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Prosopis juliflorahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 713
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; subfamily: Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: algorroba, ironwood, mesquite
Philippines: aroma
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen shrub or tree with thorns/spines, multi-stemmed but occasionally single stemmed [3–5 (15) m high], twigs distinctively zigzag.
Bark: Thick, rough grey-green, scaly with age and armed with sharp thorns/spines (up to 5 cm long).
Leaves: Dark green, hairless or hairy, twice-divided, 1–3 (–4) pairs of leaf branchlets (3–11 cm long) each with 11–15 pairs of leaflets, narrow, somewhat elongated with parallel sides (6–23 mm long and 1.6–5.5 mm wide), with smooth margins, no terminal leaflet, leaves grow alternately on stem. Flowers: Yellow, small, in cylindrical spikes (5–10 cm long and 1.5 cm side), solitary or in clusters near the leaf axils, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning yellow as they mature, flat, slightly curved (8–29 cm long and 9–17 mm wide), containing 10–20 oval seeds (2–8 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, timber, fodder, tannin, landscape restoration, windbreaks, shade, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wastelands, fallow land, drainage ditches, woodland edges/gaps, savannah, riparian vegetation, floodplains, gullies and sandy stream beds.
 
IMPACTS
Displaces native plant species and reduces the abundance and diversity of bird and other animal species. In Ethiopia, P. juliflora has reduced understorey basal cover for perennial grasses and reduced the number of grass species from seven to two (Kebede and Coppock, 2015). By transforming habitats and eliminating pasture species, it threatens the survival of Grévy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) in invaded areas (Kebede and Coppock, 2015). Other negative impacts include encroachment onto paths, villages, homes, water sources, crop- and pasturelands; and injuries inflicted by the thorns (Maundu et al., 2009). Infestations have contributed to the abandonment of agricultural land, homes and small villages. The pollen has been identified as a major allergen (Killian and McMichael, 2004). In semi-arid parts of Africa, P. juliflora has depleted the natural resources on which thousands of people depend, spawning conflict between communities over the diminishing resources.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Xanthium strumariumhot!Tooltip 10/24/2018 Hits: 461
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: large cocklebur, noogoora bur, sheep bur
Cambodia: kropeatt chrouk
Malaysia: buah anjang
Thailand: kachab
Viet Nam: cây ké dau ngua
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, much-branched herb with erect stems (20–150 cm high) without spines; stems stout, green, brownish or reddish-brown, roughly hairy.
Leaves: Green, paler below, hairy on both surfaces, broadly eggshaped to triangular (2–8 cm long), margins irregularly toothed or lobed, on long leaf stalks (2–8 cm), held alternately on stems.
Flowers: Green, inconspicuous, in the leaf axils.
Fruits: Burrs, green turning yellowish then brown as they mature (1.5–2.5 cm long), covered with hooked spines (up to 20 mm long) and two terminal beaks.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain, but probably Central and South America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Bee forage and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, savannah, water courses, lowlands, floodplains and sandy and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly forms large stands, displacing other plant species. X.strumarium is a major weed of row crops such as soya beans, cotton, maize and groundnuts in many parts of the world, including North America, southern Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, India and Japan (Webster and Coble, 1997). It also has a damaging impact on rice production in South-east Asia (Waterhouse, 1993). In the USA, high-density cocklebur infestations have resulted in soya bean yield losses of as much as 80% (Stoller et al., 1987; Rushing and Oliver, 1998). Infestations can also decrease soya bean seed quality and harvesting efficiency (Ellis et al., 998). Even low-density cocklebur infestations in cotton fields in the USA have contributed to seed yield losses of 60–90 kg per hectare, or approximately 5% (Snipes et al.,1982). Cocklebur has also caused yield losses in groundnuts of 31–39% and 88% at low and high densities, respectively, in the southern USA (Royal et al., 1997). X. strumarium burs lodge in animal hair and in sheep’s wool, reducing the quality and increasing treatment costs (Wapshere, 1974; Hocking and Liddle, 1986). The plants are toxic to livestock and can lead to death if eaten (Weaver and Lechowicz, 1983). Cocklebur is also an alternative host for a number of crop pests (Hocking and Liddle, 1986).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Tithonia diversifoliahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 396
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mexican sunflower, shrub sunflower, tree marigold
Cambodia: chhouk roth japon
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Viet Nam: dã quy
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or evergreen herbaceous shrub, woody at the base [2–3 (–5) m high]; stems slightly ridged and hairy when young.
Leaves: Greyish-green, finely hairy on underside giving a grey appearance, simple (6–33 cm long and 5–22 cm wide) with 3–5 (–7) pointed lobes, margins with a series of curved projections or teeth; held opposite or alternately on stem.
Flowers: Bright yellow, daisy or sunflower-like (up to 10 cm across), held on long and swollen stalks (7–30 cm long) which are velvety below the flowerhead.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown (4–8 mm long), in a spiky mass.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder, medicine, mulch, soil improvement, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed sites, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, savannah, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands displacing native plant species and the animals associated with them. T. diversifolia is displacing native species in the wetlands of the Apete River, Eleyele Lake and Oba Dam in Ibadan, Nigeria, including the invasive and aggressive shrub Chromolaena odorata (Oluode et al., 2011), and is now considered to be one of the most invasive species in Nigeria (Borokini, 2011). Mexican sunflower has the ability to compete with agricultural crops (Ilori et al., 2007) and is contributing to the extinction of local species, including important medicinal plants (Oludare and Muoghalu, 2014). According to reports, it is leading to the abandonment of farms in the Copperbelt region of Zambia.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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