Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Limnocharis flavahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 836
WATER POPPY FAMILY
Limnocharitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bur head, limnocharis, sawah lettuce, velvetleaf, yellow burrhead
Cambodia: trakiet paong
Indonesia: bangeng, eceng, enceng, berek, gunda, genjer
Lao PDR: kaanz choong
Malaysia: jinjir, paku rawan
Thailand: bon cheen, bonchin, nangkwak, talapatrusi, taalapat ruesee
Viet Nam: cây cù nèo, kèo nèo
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen clump-forming, aquatic, herbaceous, rooted to the ground and emerges above the water surface (20–120 cm tall); large fleshy leaves borne in clusters along a short thick erect stem (about 3 cm long and 3 cm wide), contains a milky sap.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, triangular to rounded (5–30 cm long and 4–25 cm wide), margins entire or wavy, borne on long three-angled (triangular) stalks (5–90 cm long).
Flowers: Yellow, in clusters containing 2–15 flowers at the top of three-angled stalks (20–120 cm long).
Fruits: Rounded ‘capsules’ (15–20 mm across), that split up into several floating segments when mature.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, water courses, floodplains, swamps, wetlands and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Dominates invaded water bodies displacing other aquatic plant and animal species. It has become a serious weed in rice paddies and chokes irrigation and drainage canals (Waterhouse, 2003) facilitating siltation and reducing water discharge capacity (Kotalawala, 1976). In some cases, infestations are so severe leading to the abandonment of rice fields. Invaded areas also provide ideal breeding grounds for disease vectors such as mosquitoes, contributing to the spread of diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever (Abhilash et al., 2008).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Salvinia molestahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 802
WATERMOSS FAMILY
Salviniaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: aquarium water-moss, Australian azolla, butterfly fern, giant salvinia, kariba-weed, salvinia, velvet weed
Cambodia: chark toch
Indonesia: kiambang
Thailand: chawk hunu
Viet Nam: bèo ong lon
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, mat-forming, free-floating fern, branching horizontal stems (up to 6–25 cm long and 1.2 cm thick), submerged feathery roots.
‘Leaves’: Green or yellowish-green fronds, in pairs, oval (2–6 cm long and 10–15 mm wide); almost impossible to wet due to a covering of fine egg-beater-shaped hairs (1–3 mm long) on upper surface; undersides covered in matted brown hairs.
Flowers: None
Fruits: None, reproduces from detached fragments.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Drainage ditches, irrigation channels, dams, ponds, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
Thick mats reduce light penetration into water bodies, impacting negatively on submerged aquatic plants. Infestations also often out-compete rooted and submerged native plants and in so doing, reduce plant diversity (Sculthorpe, 1985). Benthic fauna is usually also reduced (Coates, 1982), while fish can also be impacted by changes in oxygen concentrations as S. molesta plants die and rot within water bodies (Sculthorpe, 1985). It is also a pest of rice paddies in India, where it competes for water, nutrients and space, resulting in poor crop production (Anonymous, 1987). Dense mats also provide habitats for many human disease vectors such as Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, which have been identified as vectors of West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and rural elephantiasis (Pancho and Soerjani, 1978; Chow et al., 1955; Ramachandran, 1960; Lounibos et al., 1990). Mats also harbour snails that transmit schistosomiasis (Holm et al., 1977). Infestations also impact negatively on water transport and fishing. For example, entire villages, dependent on water transport were abandoned along the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea when infestations of S. molesta limited access to healthcare, education and food (Gewertz, 1983).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Coccinea grandishot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 790
GOURD FAMILY
Cucurbitaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: ivy gourd, kovai fruit, little gourd, scarlet gourd, tindora
Cambodia: slok bahs, voer bahs
Indonesia: timun kecil, timun jepang
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, herbaceous vine (9–28 m long) with hairless stems, extensive tuberous root system and axillary tendrils.
Leaves: Green, hairless above and hairy below, simple, eggshaped with broad and rounded base tapering towards the end or heart-shaped (5–9 cm long and 4–9 cm wide), sometimes with 3–7 shallow to deep lobes, margins finely to minutely toothed, held alternately on stem, leaf stalks 1–3 cm long.
Flowers: White, large, star-shaped with five petals.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), green
turning bright red as they mature, smooth, egg-or oval-shaped (25–60 mm long and 14–35 mm wide); stalks are 10–40 mm long.
 
ORIGIN
Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal,Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Food and ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, gardens, cropland, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Very aggressive and can smother and kill other vegetation, including large trees. In Hawaii, it smothers trees and understorey vegetation (Muniappan et al., 2009). It has the potential to invade dry forest areas on Maui and out-compete rare native plants (Starr et al., 2003a). According to Medeiros et al. (1993) C. grandis ‘would not only trigger the decline of much of the remaining biota but also transform the visual landscape to even the most casual of observers’. C. grandis is ‘an aggressive alien vine that tends to out-compete all other plants’ (Starr and Martz, 2000). It can also cover fences, power lines and other infrastructure causing economic damage. In the last two decades, C. grandis has emerged as an invasive weed in the islands of Guam and Saipan, where it is a problem plant both in managed gardens and natural areas (PIER, 2005). It is also a host for a number of crop pests in the family Cucurbitaceae including Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Aulacophora spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Leptoglossus australis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bemisia spp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 11 October 2018
file icon Cardiospermum halicacabumhot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 782
SOAPBERRY FAMILY
Sapindaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: heart pea, heart seed, lesser balloon vine, love in a puff
Cambodia: am baeng baek, peng poh sraom, puos am baeng
Indonesia: paria gunung
Philippines: bangkolon, kana, paspalya
Viet Nam: cây tam phong
 
DESCRIPTION
Herbaceous or slightly woody evergreen climber [up to 1–3 (–6) m high] with tendrils (slender, usually twisting structure which aids ‘climbing’); grooved stems.
Leaves: Bright green, hairless or covered in minute hairs, compound, leaflets arranged in three sets of three, narrow and tapering to a point (3–5 cm long), side leaflets smaller, margins with deep and sharp forward-pointing projections or teeth.
Flowers: White or yellow (2–3 mm long), in a few-flowered, open clusters, on long stalks (5–10 cm long); two (2 cm long) paired tendrils just below inflorescence.
Fruits: Capsules (dry fruits that open at maturity), green turning brown as they mature, membranous inflated, nearly globular (25–30 mm long); seeds black, round, with a kidney-shaped white spot.
 
ORIGIN
Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in Africa; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in South America; and the Caribbean.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, wasteland, urban open space, crops, plantations, gardens, forest edges/gaps, riparian areas, swamps and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Balloon vine smothers native vegetation, depriving it of sunlight and in so doing displaces native plant species. In Brazil, where C. halicacabum is considered to be native, it can reducesoybean crop yields by up to 26%(Brighenti et al., 2003; Dempsey, 2011). In Texas, there is also concern that it may contaminate certified soybean seeds since both seeds are similar in size and shape (Hurst, 1980). It is also considered to be a pest in sorghum, rice and oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia (Waterhouse, 1993).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Eichhornia crassipeshot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 768
PICKEREL WEED FAMILY
Pontederiaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: lilac devil, Nile lily, pickerelweed, water hyacinth, water orchid
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, free-floating, aquatic plant that may become anchored in shallow water; [10–20 (–100) cm high]; roots are long and feathery; runners (10 cm long) are produced across the water surface and give rise to new plants.
Leaves: Dark green, shiny, hairless, simple, oval to egg-shaped to almost rounded (2–25 cm long and 2–15 cm wide) with swollen bladder-like stems (30 cm long).
Flowers: Pale violet or blue (4–6 cm long and 3.5–5 cm wide), upper petal of each flower has a prominent yellow-centred patch; flowers in clusters of 8–10.
Fruits: Capsules (a dry fruit that opens at maturity) (10–15 mm long), containing very fine seeds.
 
ORIGIN
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Irrigation channels, dams, ponds, floodplains, swamps, wetlands, lakes and slow-moving rivers.
 
IMPACTS
This aquatic weed has the ability to form thick mats which hamper water transport; inhibit or even prevent fishing-related activities; block waterways and canals; hamper hydroelectricity generation; and provide breeding sites for vectors of human and animal diseases, increasing the incidence of malaria, encephalitis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, river blindness and possibly cholera (Burton, 1960; Spira et al., 1981; Gopal, 1987; Viswam et al., 1989). The thick mats reduce light penetration into the water, causing declines in the concentrations of phytoplankton that support the zooplankton–fish food chain. Extensive mats of water hyacinth increase water loss through evapotranspiration, and impact rice production (Waterhouse, 1993). In southern Benin, an infestation of water hyacinth reduced the annual income of 200,000 people by about US $84 million (de Groote et al., 2003). Lost revenues for men were mostly fishing-related, while women experienced lost revenues in trade, primarily of food crops and fish.
 
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018.

 

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