Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Xanthium strumariumhot!Tooltip 10/24/2018 Hits: 475
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: large cocklebur, noogoora bur, sheep bur
Cambodia: kropeatt chrouk
Malaysia: buah anjang
Thailand: kachab
Viet Nam: cây ké dau ngua
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual, much-branched herb with erect stems (20–150 cm high) without spines; stems stout, green, brownish or reddish-brown, roughly hairy.
Leaves: Green, paler below, hairy on both surfaces, broadly eggshaped to triangular (2–8 cm long), margins irregularly toothed or lobed, on long leaf stalks (2–8 cm), held alternately on stems.
Flowers: Green, inconspicuous, in the leaf axils.
Fruits: Burrs, green turning yellowish then brown as they mature (1.5–2.5 cm long), covered with hooked spines (up to 20 mm long) and two terminal beaks.
 
ORIGIN
Uncertain, but probably Central and South America.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Bee forage and accidentally as a contaminant.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, fallow land, crops, plantations, drainage ditches, savannah, water courses, lowlands, floodplains and sandy and dry riverbeds.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly forms large stands, displacing other plant species. X.strumarium is a major weed of row crops such as soya beans, cotton, maize and groundnuts in many parts of the world, including North America, southern Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, India and Japan (Webster and Coble, 1997). It also has a damaging impact on rice production in South-east Asia (Waterhouse, 1993). In the USA, high-density cocklebur infestations have resulted in soya bean yield losses of as much as 80% (Stoller et al., 1987; Rushing and Oliver, 1998). Infestations can also decrease soya bean seed quality and harvesting efficiency (Ellis et al., 998). Even low-density cocklebur infestations in cotton fields in the USA have contributed to seed yield losses of 60–90 kg per hectare, or approximately 5% (Snipes et al.,1982). Cocklebur has also caused yield losses in groundnuts of 31–39% and 88% at low and high densities, respectively, in the southern USA (Royal et al., 1997). X. strumarium burs lodge in animal hair and in sheep’s wool, reducing the quality and increasing treatment costs (Wapshere, 1974; Hocking and Liddle, 1986). The plants are toxic to livestock and can lead to death if eaten (Weaver and Lechowicz, 1983). Cocklebur is also an alternative host for a number of crop pests (Hocking and Liddle, 1986).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Vachellia niloticahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 256
PEA FAMILY
Fabaceae; Subfamily Mimosaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: gum arabic, Nile thorn, prickly acacia, scented thorn
Indonesia: akasia
Viet Nam: keo a rap
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen thorny tree or shrub [4–6 (–25) m]; usually singlestemmed, crown scattered when young, later umbrella-shaped; thorns greyish (up to 10 cm long); deep and well-developed root system.
Bark: In young trees tinge of orange and/or green; in older trees brown-black, rough and deeply grooved.
Leaves: Dark green, hairless, twice-divided with 3–10 pairs of leaf branchlets (4 cm long), each with 10–25 pairs of leaflets, which are narrow and somewhat elongated with almost parallel sides (2–6 mm long and 0.5– .5 mm wide); pair of spines (1–5 cm long) at base of each group of leaves in young stems.
Flowers: Pale to golden yellow globular flowerheads (1–1.5 cm across) on 2 cm long stalks, fragrant.
Fruits: Pods (several-seeded dry fruits that split open at maturity), green turning black as they mature, straight or slightly curved (10–20 cm long and 5–17 mm wide), constrictions between each seed in the pod resemble a string of pearls.
 
ORIGIN
India, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, tools, medicine, chicorysubstitute in coffee, fodder, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation, windbreak, firebreak, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed land, urban open space, drainage ditches, irrigation channels, woodland edges/gaps, savannah and natural pasture.
 
IMPACTS
In Queensland, Australia, tree cover of just 25–30% has reduced the amount of pasture by 50% (Carter, 1994). Dense thickets also make it difficult to herd livestock, and animals have reduced access to water. In Indonesia, A. nilotica in Baluran National Park has reduced the amount of grazing available for herbivores, threatening the continued existence of the endangered banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton; Bovidae). Infestations also contribute to increase soil erosion. Because the tree fixes nitrogen it also impacts on soil nutrient cycling.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Tithonia diversifoliahot!Tooltip 10/23/2018 Hits: 407
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Mexican sunflower, shrub sunflower, tree marigold
Cambodia: chhouk roth japon
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Viet Nam: dã quy
 
DESCRIPTION
Annual or evergreen herbaceous shrub, woody at the base [2–3 (–5) m high]; stems slightly ridged and hairy when young.
Leaves: Greyish-green, finely hairy on underside giving a grey appearance, simple (6–33 cm long and 5–22 cm wide) with 3–5 (–7) pointed lobes, margins with a series of curved projections or teeth; held opposite or alternately on stem.
Flowers: Bright yellow, daisy or sunflower-like (up to 10 cm across), held on long and swollen stalks (7–30 cm long) which are velvety below the flowerhead.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown (4–8 mm long), in a spiky mass.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fodder, medicine, mulch, soil improvement, hedge/barrier and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed sites, wastelands, urban open space, fallow land, savannah, lowlands and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Forms dense stands displacing native plant species and the animals associated with them. T. diversifolia is displacing native species in the wetlands of the Apete River, Eleyele Lake and Oba Dam in Ibadan, Nigeria, including the invasive and aggressive shrub Chromolaena odorata (Oluode et al., 2011), and is now considered to be one of the most invasive species in Nigeria (Borokini, 2011). Mexican sunflower has the ability to compete with agricultural crops (Ilori et al., 2007) and is contributing to the extinction of local species, including important medicinal plants (Oludare and Muoghalu, 2014). According to reports, it is leading to the abandonment of farms in the Copperbelt region of Zambia.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
file icon Thunbergia grandiflorahot!Tooltip 10/04/2018 Hits: 258
ACANTHUS FAMILY
Acanthaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Bengal trumpet vine, blue thunbergia, blue trumpet vine, Indian sky flower
Cambodia: voer thnort
Indonesia: keladi-keladian
Philippines: ag-agob, hagonoy, suga-suga, padawel, saromayag, kama-elaw
Viet Nam: dây bông xanh, bông báo
 
DESCRIPTION
A vigorous evergreen climber with rope-like stems (up to 15 m in height) with tuberous roots; young stems are green, hairy, square in cross-section, becoming brown and more rounded with age.
Leaves: Dark green, somewhat hairy, simple, variable in shape from triangular with broad heart-shaped bases to egg-shaped with broad end at base (8–22 cm long and 3–15 cm wide), margins entire to irregularly toothed or with irregular pointed lobes, held opposite each other on stems.
Flowers: Pale-blue, violet or mauve with pale yellow or whitish throat, trumpet-shaped (3–8 cm long and 6–8 cm across), on elongated clusters; each flower on a stalk (4.5 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (dry fruit that opens at maturity) with a rounded base (18 mm long and 13 mm wide) and a long tapered beak (2–5 cm long and about 7 mm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Plantations, forest, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/ gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
This climber completely smothers other established plant species and prevents the regeneration of native species in invaded areas (Starr et al., 2003b). T. grandiflora has a heavy and extensive tuberous root system which can lead to riverbank destabilization and damage fences and building foundations (Motooka et al., 2003). In Queensland, Australia, it is having a negative impact on threatened lowland tropical rainforest that have been fragmented by agricultural and urban development (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007). It also climbs on to power lines causing power outages.
 

Source:

Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 5 October 2018

file icon Syngonium podophyllumhot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 862
ARUM FAMILY
Araceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: arrowhead vine, African evergreen, goosefoot plant, American evergreen
Indonesia: Keladi-keladian
Philippines: kamay-Kastila
Viet Nam: Tróc bac, trau bà trang
 
DESCRIPTION
Rampant evergreen climber or creeping plant reaching 5-10 m when climbing over trees; young stems bluish-green, hairless, smooth, fleshy, contain milky sap, roots develop at stem joints; older stems pale brown, woody (1.5-2.5 cm thick) with aerial roots.
Leaves: Vary in colour with lower leaves dark green or with silverywhite veins and upper leaves light or dark green with no markings, all hairless with margins entire, paler undersides and on stalks (15-60 cm long) which are partly grooved; lower leaves are heart-shaped or shaped like an arrow-head (7-14 cm long) with pointed tips; intermediate leaves larger with spreading lobes; upper leaves (12-38 cm long and 16-17 cm wide) divided into three segments or leaflets.
Flowers: Whitish spikes (4-11) (5-9 cm long and 7-15 mm wide) partially enclosed in a white to greenish modified leaf (9-11 cm long), held in upper leaf forks on stalks (up to 13 cm long).
Fruits: Red to reddish-orange merging into one larger fruit, turning brown as they mature, egg-shaped (3.5-7 cm long and 1.5-3.5 cm wide), usually hidden.
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wasteland, disturbed land, plantations, forests, forest edges/gaps, woodlands, woodland edges/gaps, riparian zones and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Climbs up into shrubs and tree shading out native vegetation and in so doing reducing native plant diversity and abundance. It has the ability to invade intact forests covering the forest floor and climbing into large and well established native trees, often causing canopy collapse due to the weight of the large stems (Space and Flynn, 2000; (Morgan et al., 2004). In Florida it is displacing a host of native plants including rare ferns (Possley, 2004). In Belize, it has invaded citrus orchards competing with trees for water and nutrients (Tzul, undated). The thick mats also harbour snakes endangering labourers working in orchards (Tzul, undated). S. podophyllum may also cause mild to severe poisoning if ingested (Morgan et al., 2004).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018
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