Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Passiflora foetidahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 1118
PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY
Passifloraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: foetid passion flower, passion flower, stinking passion fruit, wild passionfruit
Cambodia: voer saw maw
Indonesia: buah tikus, ceplukan blunsun, katceprek, katjeprek, lemanas, permot, permot rajutan, rambaton blunsun
Lao PDR: nya ham ho
Malaysia: pokok lang bulu, timun dendang
Myanmar: chin-gya-thee-pin, su-ka
Philippines: belon-belon, kurunggut, lupok-lupok, masaflora, melon meleonan, taungan, pasionariang-mabaho, prutas taungan
Thailand: ka thok rok
Viet Nam: chùm bao, nhãn long
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen, tendril climber; stems sometimes angular (up to 15 m high); tendril at the base of each leaf stalk together with a stipule (threadlike appendage) covered in sticky glands; stems have an unpleasant odour.
Leaves: Glossy dark-green above, simple, deeply three-lobed, but sometimes entire or five-lobed (3–10.5 cm long and 3–10 cm wide), margins with forward-pointing sharp projections or teeth; leaves held alternately on stems and borne on stalks (1–6 cm long).
Flowers: White or purplish (3–5 cm across), borne singly on stalks (2–4.5 cm long) arising from the leaf forks.
Fruits: Berries (fleshy fruits that don’t open at maturity), greenishyellow turning yellow/orange as it matures, round, dry, large (1.5–4 cm long), hairless, partially enclosed by the sticky bracts.
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Medicine, edible fruit, ground cover and ornament.
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, savannah and riparian zones.
 
IMPACTS
In parts of Malaysia it is a serious weed of maize and rubber. It also impacts negatively on coconut production in the Pacific, on maize, sugarcane and cotton in Thailand, on oil palm in Indonesia, on taro in Samoa, and on various other crops in Sarawak (Holm et al., 1997). It is an alternative host for a number of diseases which affect cultivated passion fruit.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Swietenia macrophyllahot!Tooltip 09/27/2016 Hits: 946
MAHOGANY FAMILY
Meliaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: big-leaved mahogany, broad-leaved mahogany, Honduras mahogany
Cambodia: kroab baek
Indonesia: mahoni
Malaysia: cheria mahogany
Thailand: mahokkani-bailek
Viet Nam: cây nhac ngua
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen tropical tree species (up to 40–60 m high), trunk is straight, cylindrical, 3–4 m in circumference, buttresses up to 5 m high, crown of young trees is narrow, but old trees have a broad, dense and highly branched crown.
Bark: Brownish-grey to reddish-brown, deeply furrowed, scaly, inner bark red-brown or pinkish red, flaking off in small patches.
Leaves: Green, once-divided [12–45 (–60) cm long], 3–6 pairs of sword- or egg-shaped leaflets (5–12 cm long and 2–5 cm wide), margins entire gradually tapering to a sharp point.
Flowers: Small (0.5–1 cm long and 8 mm across), in clusters (10–20 cm long).
Fruits: Capsule (a dry fruit that opens at maturity), light grey to brown, egg-shaped (12–39 cm long and 7–12 cm wide) containing 20–70 winged seeds (7–12 cm long and 2–2.5 cm wide).
 
ORIGIN
Belize, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Fuelwood, building materials, timber, shade and ornament.
 
INVADES
Disturbed land, forest edges/gaps and riparian vegetation.
 
IMPACTS
Mahogany readily invades secondary forests and forest edges and gaps preventing native species regeneration. In the lowlands of Mount Makiling, Philippines, mahogany had penetrated 250 m into secondary forests in 70 years (Baguinon, 2011). Dominance is facilitated by the fact that mahogany may also be allelopathic (Thinley, 2002). Extracts from the leaves of mahogany were shown to retard the growth of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) seedlings in the Philippines (Baguinon et al., 2003). Diversity of native plants in general was also considerably reduced under or near S. macrophylla stands. Invasive mahogany species together with other introduced plants are preventing the regeneration of dipterocarp and nondipterocarp forests in parts of Asia.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 24 October 2018

 

file icon Mikania micranthahot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 913
DAISY FAMILY
Asteraceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: American rope, bitter vine, Chinese creeper, climbing hemp vine, mile-a-minute weed
Cambodia: voer tun trean khaet
Indonesia: caputuheun, mikania, sembung rambat
Malaysia: cheroma, ulam tikus
Viet Nam: cây cúc leo
 
DESCRIPTION
A branched, scrambling, slender-stemmed, fast-growing, evergreen vine; stem slightly ribbed lengthwise, hairless or slightly hairy.
Leaves: Green, hairless, simple, heart-shaped or triangular with a pointed tip and a broad base (4–13cm long and 2–9 cm wide), 3–5 veined from base, margins are coarsely toothed; leaves held in opposite pairs along the stems with leaf stalks 2–8 cm long.
Flowers: Fluffy white to greenish-white, often with purple tinge (3–6 mm long), in dense clusters in the forks of the leaves or at the ends of the branches.
Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), black, linear to elongated with almost parallel sides, five-angled (1.2–2 mm long).
 
ORIGIN
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba,Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St. Lucia, Suriname and Venezuela.
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, wastelands, disturbed land, crops, plantations, managed pasture, forest edges/gaps, woodland edges/gaps, riversides and wetlands.
 
IMPACTS
Rapidly smothers native plants and crops. It is considered to be one of the worst weeds of plantation crops in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In Southeast Asia, it affects yields of cocoa, coconut, orchards, rubber, oil palm, vegetables and rice (Waterhouse, 1993). The annual cost of controlling M. micrantha was estimated at US $9.8 million for rubber, oil palm and cocoa crops in Malaysia (Teoh et al., 1985). In Samoa, it has led to the abandonement of coconut plantations where it is also known tohave killed large breadfruit trees. In Papua New Guinea, about 45% of all respondents estimated that M. micrantha causes yield losses in excess of 30% (Day et al., 2012). In summer, the dried aerial parts are also a fire hazard allowiing fires to penetrate deeper into forests and other natural vegetation.
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 23 October 2018
file icon Antigonon leptopushot!Tooltip 09/12/2016 Hits: 860
KNOTWEED FAMILY
Polygonaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: bride’s tears, chain of love, coral bells, coral creeper, love vine
Indonesia: bunga air mata pengantin
Malaysia: bunga berteh, bunga bonet
Philippines: cadena de amor, kantutay
Thailand: phuang-chomphuu
Viet Nam: hoa ti-gôn
 
DESCRIPTION
Evergreen climber or vine with tendrils, angular stems [6–10 (–15 m long]; hairless or with young shoots covered in brownish or reddish hairs; older stems brown and woody near base; underground tubers.
Leaves: Light green on upper surface, pale green below, membranous, conspicuous network of veins, heart-shaped or triangular (2.5–15 cm long and 2–10 cm wide), margins entire, wavy or bluntly toothed with pointed tips, leaf stalks 1–5 cm long, slightly winged.
Flowers: Bright pink, sometimes white, in clusters (4–20 cm long) at the tips of branches, tips of clusters ending in a short tendril. Fruits: Achenes (small, dry, one-seeded fruits that don’t open at maturity), brown, cone-shaped or three-angled (8–12 mm long and 4–7 mm wide), covered in the papery remains of the flower ‘petals.’
 
ORIGIN
Mexico
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ornament
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, wastelands, urban open space, forest edges/gaps, riparian vegetation and coastal sand dunes.
 
IMPACTS
Smothers native trees, out-competes understorey plants and alters fire regimes (Langeland et al., 2008; USDA-NRCS, 2011). On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), it is ‘rampant on sea and inland cliffs and in previously mined areas where it may be hampering the annual migration of crabs and interfering with natural regeneration’ (Swarbrick and Hart, 2000). It has been estimated to cover 20% of the island of Saint Eustatius (Caribbean) (Ernst and Ketner, 2007).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
file icon Cenchrus echinatushot!Tooltip 09/26/2016 Hits: 855
GRASS FAMILY
Poaceae
 
COMMON NAMES
English: buffel grass, bur grass, field sandbur, hedgehog grass, Mossman river grass
Indonesia: rumput daratan
Philippines: agingay, madiyong-madiyong, sagisi, rukut-dukut
Thailand: yaa son krachap, ya-bung
Viet Nam: co echin
 
DESCRIPTION
Short-lived, tufted grass with often branched stems (culms) (25–60 cm tall), hairless nodes, roots occasionally produced at the lowest joints.
Leaves: Green, sheath (tubular structure that clasps stem) partially encloses stem, usually hairless but sometimes with a few hairs, reddish or purplish on young plants and lower stems; blades are linear (5–25 cm long and 3–12 mm wide), narrowing to a point, some hairs along margins.
Flowers: Inflorescence is a panicle or ‘flowering spike’ (3–10 cm long and 1–1.3 cm wide).
Fruits: Burr-like structures in inflorescence (4–10 mm long), each with many sharp spines (2–5 mm long), reddish or purplish-green when young turning straw-coloured or dark brown; ‘burs’ contain seeds which are brown and have a flattened tip.
 
ORIGIN
Mexico and southern USA
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Accidentally as a contaminant
 
INVADES
Roadsides, disturbed areas, fallow land, crops, managed pasture, gardens, grassland and sandy soils along the coast.
 
IMPACTS
Can readily establish large monocultures to the detriment of native plant species and the organisms that depend on them. On Laysan Island, Hawaii, it displaced the native bunchgrass, Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich) Steud., and in so doing, reduced important breeding sites for two endemic, endangered land birds, the Laysan finch [Telespiza cantans (Wilson)], and the Laysan duck [Anas laysanensis Rothschild], as well as several species of indigenous seabirds and terrestrial arthropods (Flint and Rehkemper, 2002). The burs are apparently also dangerous for hatchlings of seabirds on the Northwestern Islands (Motooka et al., 2003). Burs in animal feed can also reduce their acceptability and palatability. Buffel grass is also a serious agricultural weed of orchards, vineyards, coffee, vegetables, bananas and coconuts. Crops competing for nutrients with C. echinatus typically have smaller leaf areas and lower growth rates and yields (Hammerton, 1981; Everaarts, 1993; Ramos and Pitelli, 1994). C. echinatus is also an alternative host for maize streak monogeminivirus and sugarcane streak monogeminivirus (Brunt et al., 1996).
 
Source:
Witt, Arne. 2017. Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia. CAB International. Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158961 on 8 October 2018
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