Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets

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file icon Pterois volitansnew!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: scorpion volitans, peacock lionfish, Indo-Pacific red lionfish, lionfish
Indonesia: Lepu-penganten
Malaysia: Depu, Depu-belang zebra, Gedempu, Lepu
Philippines: Tandang, Danuy ranuy, Ranuy ranuy
Viet Nam: Cá Mao Tiên
 
DESCRIPTION
Pterois volitans has elongated venomous dorsal fin spines and anal fin spines. It has 13 dorsal spines, 10 to 11 dorsal soft rays, 3 anal spines, 6 to 7 anal soft rays. Coastal populations are generally darker, sometimes almost black in estuaries (FishBase 2006). The membranes of fins are often spotted. The body is white or cream coloured with red to reddish-brown vertical stripes. The vertical stripes alternate from wide to very thin and sometimes merge along the flank to form a V (Schofield and Fuller 2006). The maximum length of an adult is 38cm (FishBase 2006) and the maximum body weight is 1.1kg to 1.2kg (Fishelson 1997). Reports of a 43cm individual have been obtained in its introduced range.
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Viet Nam
World: Australia, China, Christmas Island, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, India
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
WORLD: Atlantic - Western Central, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Coasts Of The Caribbean, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Greater Antilles, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Turks And Caicos Islands, United States, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, U.S., West Indies
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Eggs and larvae of the red lionfish may be transported via ballast water (Whitfield 2002).
 
IMPACTS
Ecosystem change: While few ecological studies have been conducted (but see Albins & Hixon 2008) it is clear that the lionfish’s presence in the Caribbean is a worrying one. Lionfish are highly piscivorous and reduce the recruitment of juvenile fishes, which in turn disrupts marine ecosystem processes and reduces reef biodiversity (Albins and Hixon 2008; Morris et al. 2008).
Reduction in native biodiversity: If their populations are allowed to continue growing unchecked, lionfish have the potential to severely reduce reef biodiversity, with the possible extinction of several species; although it is still too early to be definitive, anecdotal evidence from the Bahamas corroborates this premise (Dell 2009).
Predation: Albins and Hixon (2008) showed that lionfish can drastically reduce recruitment of native fishes on small patch reefs in the Bahamas. They are potentially capable of decimating indigenous reef fish populations in the Caribbean due to their lack of natural predators and voracious appetite (Valdez Mascari & Aguiar 2009).
Competition: Not only do lionfish consume large quantities of juvenile fish (such as grouper and yellow-tail snapper) but they also out-compete native species (such as scamp, gag, and yellowmouth grouper) for food (Morris et al. 2008; Dell 2009). Economic/Livelihoods: In addition, by reducing populations of commercially important species such as grouper (Albins and Hixon 2008) they may as a consequence damage the economy of island communities which are dependent on such fishing industries.
Human health: Lionfish are venomous with their spines containing apocrine-type venom glands (Morris et al. 2008). Lionfish venom has been found to cause cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and cytolytic effects ranging from mild reactions such as swelling to extreme pain and paralysis in upper and lower extremities (Kizer et al. 1985, in Morris et al. 2008). The toxin in lionfish venom contains acetylcholine and a neurotoxin that affects neuromuscular transmission (Cohen and Olek 1989, in Morris et al. 2008). Lionfish spines can prove dangerous to divers, snorkelers and aquarium enthusiasts (Morris et al. 2008; Schofield 2009). Stings are not fatal, but intensely painful and often requiring hospitalisation (Morris et al. 2008). Lionfish stings can be treated by heating the afflicted part in hot water (to 45° C) for 30 to 90 minutes and applying corticoids to the area (FishBase 2006); medical attention should be sought immediately (Cayman Islands Government Undated).
 
Source: Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Pterois volitans. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1050 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Mytilopsis salleinew!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: false mussel, Caribbean black-striped mussel, Caribbean black-striped false mussel, Santo Domingo false mussel, black striped mussel
 
DESCRIPTION
Mytilopsis sallei is a small, fingernail sized mussel, growing to an average size of 25mm, although sizes range from lengths of 8-25mm, with a maximum width of 9.68mm and a maximum height of 12.58mm. It has a varied shell colouration, from black through to a light colour, with some small individuals having a light and dark zig-zag pattern. The right valve overlaps the left valve, and is slightly larger. M. sallei settles in clusters, and is rarely seen as a single individual (NIMPIS, 2002).
 
NATIVE RANGE
World: Atlantic - Western Central, Guatemala, United States, West Indies
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
WORLD: Australia, Hongkong, Japan, Fiji, India, Mexico, Taiwan
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat hull fouling
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Hull fouling is often an important factor in incursions, such as the introduction of M. sallei to Darwin Harbour, Australia in the 1990s (Hutchings et al. 2002).Spread via ballast water appears less likely because of the short duration of the larval stage (CSIRO, 2001).
 
IMPACTS
Mytilopsis sallei is an extremely prolific and fecund species, being ecologically similar to its relation the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. It has been responsible for massive fouling on wharves and marinas, seawater systems (pumping stations, vessel ballast and cooling systems) and marine farms. In preferred habitats, it forms dense monospecific groups that exclude most other species, leading to a substantial reduction in biodiversity in infected areas (NIMPIS, 2002; CSIRO, 2001).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Mytilopsis sallei. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1047 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Musculista senhousianew!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: Asian mussel, green mussel, cuckoo mussel, senhouse mussel, hototogisu, Senhouse's mussel, Asian date mussel, Japanese mussel, green bagmussel, date mussel
 
DESCRIPTION
Musculista senhousia is a small mussel with a maximum length of around 30mm, but most commonly 10-25mm in length and up to 12mm in width. It has a smooth, thin shell which is an olive green to brown in colour, with dark radial lines or zigzag markings. A well developed byssus is used to construct a cocoon which protects the shell. This cocoon is made up of byssal threads and sediment. M. senhousia burrows vertically down into the sand/mud leaving only its posterior end protruding, allowing its siphons access to the water to enable feeding (NIMPIS, 2002; CIESM, 2005).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Singapore
World: Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN:
WORLD: Australia, China, France, Italy, Mediterranean and Black Sea, New Zealand, Tanzania Republic Of, Canada, Egypt, Israel, Madagascar, Mexico, Slovenia, United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water 
Aquaculture
Trading
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Musculista senhousia may have been introduced to Australia as an accidental importation with Pacific oysters (CSIRO, 2000). In the Mediterranean, invasion of M. senhousia has been strictly linked with shellfish arming and trading.The initial invasion of the Pacific coast of the USA is attributed to transport with oysters imported from Japan (Mistri et al. 2004).
 
IMPACTS
Musculista senhousia can dominate benthic communities and potentially exclude native species. It settles in aggregations and is therefore able to reach high densities. Unlike most mussels, M.senhousia lives entirely within the sediments, surrounded by a bag of byssal threads. At mussel densities of greater than 1500 m2, individual byssal bags coalesce to form a continuous mat or carpet on the sediment surface. The presence of these mats dramatically alters the natural benthic habitat, changing both the local physical environment and the resident macroinvertebrate assemblage. M. senhousia deposits large amounts of organic matter in the sediment, which possibly results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as sulfide, which can have adverse effects on seagrass growth (Morton, 1974; Ito and Kajihara, 1981; in Reusch and Williams, 1998).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Musculista senhousia. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1031 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
file icon Gymnodinium catenatumnew!Tooltip 09/13/2019 Hits: 0
SYSTEM
Marine
 
COMMON NAMES
English: naked dinoflagellate, estuarine dinoflagellate, chain-forming dinoflagellate
 
DESCRIPTION
Gymnodinium catenatum is a toxic, bloom forming species of microalgae. It is usually seen in long, swimming chains of tiny cells, with up to 32 cells in a chain (occasionally 64). It is also seen as solitary cells with a green-brown colour. The size of these cells ranges from 38 - 53 um long and 33 - 45 um wide. The cells are circular to squarish in shape, with many rounded organelles within them. Cysts of G. catenatum are brown, spherical and range in size from 45 - 50 um in diameter.
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN: Philippines, Singapore
WORLD: Argentina, Baha De La Paz, China, Cuba, Iberian Coastal, Japan, Korea, Republic Of, Mexico, Pacific-Eastern Central, Portugal, Spain, Venezuela, Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Hong Kong, Italy, Korea Democratic People’s Republic Of, Mediterranean and Black Sea, New Zealand, Uruguay
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat Ballast Water
Aquaculture and Fisheries
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Ballast water can transport this organism long distances to new environments. Cysts of G. catenatum can be accidentally translocated through aquaculture and fisheries activities, such as in oyster cages or on mussel ropes.
 
IMPACTS
Toxins (saxitoxins and gonyautoxins) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum can cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP). Mussels, oysters and scallops from areas affected by G. catenatum blooms have been highly contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins, resulting in human poisonings (NIMPIS, 2002c).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gymnodinium catenatum. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=645 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
SYSTEM
Marine
 
DESCRIPTION
Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a red macroalga that is cartilaginous, cylindrical and up to 50 cm long. It is coarsely branched, often profusely so. G. vermiculophylla can be found as loose-lying thalli or attached to small stones or shells. Red algae are often found in the vegetative state, and characterisation of reproductive structures is often necessary for correct identification of Gracilaria species (AlgaeBase 2010; Liao & Hommersand 2003; Nyberg et al. 2009; Rueness 2005).
 
NATIVE RANGE
ASEAN: Viet Nam
World: China, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation
 
KNOWN INTRODUCED RANGE
ASEAN:
World: Atlantic-Northeast, Canada, Europe, Germany, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Atlantic-Northwest, Denmark, France, Italy, Morocco, Pacific-Northeast, Spain, United States
 
PATHWAY
Transport – Ship/boat ballast water Fisheries
 
REASON FOR INTRODUCTION
Spread is likely to occur on vectors such as fishing and leisure boats (Nyberg 2007 in Nyberg et al. 2009).Fishing gear (Nyberg et al. 2009).
 
IMPACTS
Gracilaria vermiculophylla inhibits the growth and survival of native algae through competition (Council of Europe 2009; Hamman et al. n.d.). G. vermiculophylla is reported to be a problem in fishing industries through fouling of nets (Freshwater et al. 2000).
 
Source: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Available from: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1698 [Accessed 09 September 2019]
 
 
 
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